Month: February 2021

Estimate of Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)

Estimate of Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316): Alauddin Khilji was undoubtedly the greatest among the Sultans of Delhi. He established an undiluted despotism by bringing the Turkish nobles, the ulema, the Hindu landowners, the business community and the masses to a state of common subjection to his authority. He carried militarism to its apotheosis and demonstrated what

Rise of Maratha

Rise of Maratha: The rise of Maratha appears to be an important chapter in Medieval historiography. According to British scholar Grant Duff, it was the product of the subversive activities committed in the forest of Sahyadri. On the other hand, some modern scholars Andre Winck tried to interpret the rise of Maratha power in the

Habitat and Ecological Niche

Habitat and Ecological Niche: Habitat: Habitat is defined as a specific place or locality where an organism lives. A habitat is a physical entity comprising the sum total of the abiotic factors to which a species or a group of species is exposed. It may be as large as the ocean, Pond, lake or forest.

Biology and its Branches

What is Biology? Biology is defined as the branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms. It has been divided into two main subdivisions- Zoology (the study of living animals) and Botany (the study of living plants). Various Branches of Biology: Parasitology- is the branch of biology that deals with the study

The Nehru Report (1928)

The Nehru Report (1928): To justify the exclusion of Indians from the Simon Commission the British cited the lack of unity among the Indians. Lord Birkenhead, the Secretary of State in 1927, had expressed his doubts about the ability of the Indians to draft a constitution to which all parties and communities would agree. Indians

Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Elsewhere

Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Elsewhere: Colonialism, basically, implied economic relation but it widely influenced existing socio-cultural structure as well. In fact, the need for efficient economic exploitation of the colony demanded the cultural hegemonisation by metropolitan state. So the colonial state in India started socio-cultural engineering to serve its colonial interest.

Kautilya Arthashastra

Kautilya Arthashastra: The Arthashastra is one of the most important sources for reconstructing ancient India economy, laws and legal institutions, social structure, and polity ideological superstructure. Although the work is basically concerned with political theories and speculations it also throws ample light on contemporary society. The additional advantage of the text is that it not

Phylum Platyhelminthes (The Flatworms)

Phylum Platyhelminthes: Platyhelminthes is a phylum of dorsoventrally flattened acoelomate but triploblastic animals having bilateral symmetry and blind sac body plan. Due to their flattened nature, Platyhelminthes are also called flatworms. The term Platyhelminthes was coined by Gegenbaur (1859). Characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms are free-living commensal or parasitic organisms. The free-living worms may be

Phylum Coelenterata or Cnidaria

Phylum Coelenterata or Cnidaria: Cnidarians are the first true metazoans that have attained tissue grade of construction. Cnidaria is a phylum of diploblastic, acoelomatic animals that possess stinging cells and a blind sac gastrovascular cavity. The phylum evolved in the Proterozoic era, more than 600 million years ago. The term Coelenterata was coined by Leuckart