Category: History

Gupta Empire

The founder of the Gupta dynasty was Sri Gupta. He was succeeded by Ghatokacha. These two were called Maharajas. Chandragupta I (320-330 A.D.):- Was the first independent ruler & called himself ‘Maharajadhiraja‘ (the great king of kings). Married the Lichchavi Princess, Kumaradevi, which was politically very strategic for Gupta empire. He is considered to be

Sangam Age

The land South of Krishna River was divided into three kingdoms – Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas. There was continuous warfare between the three. Cheras – Emblem – Bow & Arrow. Capital – Vanji or Karur (modern Kerala). Port – Muzris (most famous), Tondi, Bandar. The cheras dynasty was known as “Keralaputras” in the Ashoka’s inscription.

Pre-Gupta Period

Indo-Greeks:- Demetrius was the first foreign king after Alexander who carried Greek army into India about 190 B.C. & conquered North Western part of the Mauryan Empire. Most famous among Indo-Greek rulers was Menander who reached Pataliputra. His capital was Sakala or Sialkot. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna & their conversation

Mauryan Empire

Chandragupta Maurya (321-297 B.C.):- Called as Sandrocottus by the Greeks. Finding signs of royalty in him, Chanakya or Vishnu Gupta or Kautilya, brought him up got him educated at Taxila. At the young age of 25, dethroned the last Nanda ruler (Dhanananda) & occupied Pataliputra in 321 B.C. with the help of Kautilya. Fought Seleukos


The name of two Jain Tirthankaras (prophets or gurus), Rishabha & Arishtanemi, are found in the Rigveda. The Vishnu Purana & the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishabha as incarnation of Narayana. There were 24 tirthankaras, all kshatriyas & belonging to the Royal family. The first was Rishabha, the founder of Jainism & the last twenty fourth

Other Movements

Prarthna Samaj –  As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang. Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”. The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter caste marriage,

The Aligarh Movement

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan & Aligarh Movement:- Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was instrumental in fostering differences between the Hindus & the Muslims. In the initial years he was a staunch nationalist who regarded the two communities as “the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is India”. The suppression of the Muslims following the Revolt

Sayyids & Lodhis

Sayyids (1414-1451):- After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, Daulat Khan Lodi became the Sultan, but was defeated by Khizr Khan(1414-1421) who was Timur’s Viceroy of Multan & Dipalpur & thus was founded the Sayyid dynasty. Khizr Khan claimed his descent from the blood line of prophet Mohammad. Mubarak Shah (1421-1434) was the protagonist of Yahya-bin-Ahmad Sirhindi’s,

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)

Tughlaq – personal name. Belonged to Qarauna Turk tribe, mixed tribe of Turk & Mongol stock. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-25):- Also called Ghazi Malik. First sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or Slayer of the infidels. First sultan to start irrigation work. Gave up land measurement & started Batai System or Sharing

The Khaljis (1290-1320)

  The Khalji people were an ethnic group from Western Turkistan. Their ascendancy is known as the Khalji Revolution because  it marked the end of monopoly of power by the Turkish nobility & racial dictatorship. Jalauddin Firuz Khalji (1290-96):- Ali Gurshasp (later sultan Alauddin Khalji) was the nephew & son-in-law of Jalauddin Firuz Khalji. After the