Category: History

The Mughal Empire (1556-1707)

Mughal Empire Important Facts: Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur (1526-1530): A descendant of Timur on his father’s side and of Chengiz Khan on the side of the mother. Mughals called themselves as Timurids. He was born in 1483. Babur ascended the throne at Farghana, a small principality in Transoxiana, in 1494 after the death of his father

Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire Important Facts: The founder of the Gupta dynasty was Sri Gupta. He was succeeded by Ghatokacha. These two were called Maharajas. Chandragupta I (320-330 A.D.): Was the first independent ruler & called himself ‘Maharajadhiraja‘ (the great king of kings). Married the Lichchavi Princess, Kumaradevi, which was politically very strategic for Gupta empire. He

Sangam Age

Sangam Age Important Facts: The land South of Krishna River was divided into three kingdoms – Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas. There was continuous warfare between the three. Sangam Age Kingdom: Cheras: Emblem – Bow & Arrow. Capital – Vanji or Karur (modern Kerala). Port – Muzris (most famous), Tondi, Bandar. The cheras dynasty was known

Pre-Gupta Period

Pre-Gupta Period Important Facts: Indo-Greeks: Demetrius was the first foreign king after Alexander who carried Greek army into India about 190 B.C. & conquered North Western part of the Mauryan Empire. Most famous among Indo-Greek rulers was Menander who reached Pataliputra. His capital was Sakala or Sialkot. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire Important Facts: Chandragupta Maurya (321-297 B.C.): Called as Sandrocottus by the Greeks. Finding signs of royalty in him, Chanakya or Vishnu Gupta or Kautilya, brought him up got him educated at Taxila. At the young age of 25, dethroned the last Nanda ruler (Dhanananda) & occupied Pataliputra in 321 B.C. with the help


Jainism Important Facts: The name of two Jain Tirthankaras (prophets or gurus), Rishabha & Arishtanemi, are found in the Rigveda. The Vishnu Purana & the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishabha as incarnation of Narayana. There were 24 tirthankaras, all kshatriyas & belonging to the Royal family. The first was Rishabha, the founder of Jainism & the

Other Social Reform Movements

Social Reform: Prarthna Samaj –  As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang. Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”. The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan & the Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement: Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was instrumental in fostering differences between the Hindus & the Muslims. In the initial years he was a staunch nationalist who regarded the two communities as “the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is India”. The suppression of the Muslims following the Revolt of 1857 convinced Sir Sayyid

Sayyid & Lodhi Dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451): After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, Daulat Khan Lodi became the Sultan, but was defeated by Khizr Khan(1414-1421) who was Timur’s Viceroy of Multan & Dipalpur & thus was founded the Sayyid dynasty. Khizr Khan claimed his descent from the blood line of prophet Mohammad. Mubarak Shah (1421-1434) was the protagonist of Yahya-bin-Ahmad

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)

Tughlaq Dynasty Important Facts: Tughlaq – personal name. Belonged to Qarauna Turk tribe, mixed tribe of Turk & Mongol stock. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-25): Also called Ghazi Malik. First sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or Slayer of the infidels. First sultan to start irrigation work. Gave up land measurement & started