Category: History

July Revolution of 1830 Causes

July Revolution of 1830: After the fall of Napoleon, the Bourbon line of King was restored in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. The new monarch was determined to act constitutionally. He issued the famous Constitutional Charter which established a legislature of two houses- the Chamber of Peers, appointed for life and the …

The Greek War of Independence 1827-29

The Greek War of Independence 1827-29: The Greeks were the first to achieve their emancipation. Though forming part of the Ottoman Empire, the Greeks enjoyed a practical independence subject only to their sending to Constantinople an annual tribute in money and in sailors to man the imperial navy. The memories of Hellenic culture also contributed to …

The Revolution of 1820

The Revolution of 1820: The chief European powers who made a territorial settlement at Vienna were determined that they must keep Europe at peace. Two international organizations were ready to do this- the Holy Alliance and the Quadruple Alliance. The Holy Alliance met with failure. But the same could not be said of the Quadruple Alliance …

Metternich System (1815-1848)

Metternich System: The period from 1815 to 1848 has usually been called the ‘Era of Metternich’ for during these years he was the central figure in European politics. For the preservation of Habsburg dominion inhabited by Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Rumanians, and Poles, Metternich devised his famous system. He was the apostle of conservatism. ‘Govern and …

Criticism of the Vienna Settlement

Criticism of the Vienna Settlement: The territorial adjustments made at the Congress of Vienna ignored the principles of liberalism and nationalism. It was in defiance of the principle of nationalism, Austria was given a commanding position in Italy, that Norway was handed from Denmark to Sweden and Belgium was united with Holland. Germany and Italy were …

The Vienna Settlement

Vienna Settlement: After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, it was decided that a Congress should be held at Vienna to undertake the task of territorial reconstruction. The territorial settlement made at Vienna was signed in June 1815 before the battle of Waterloo. It was in effect made by the representatives of the five Great Powers. …

Short Note on Eastern Question

Eastern Question: The history of the Ottoman Empire between 1815 and 1914 is the history of its dissolution. The Ottoman Empire was at its zenith in the 17th century and with the end of the century began its dismemberment. In the 18th century, Russia and Austria brought large portions of this empire under their control. The …

World War I and the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire

Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire: The results of the Balkan Wars were far-reaching in their consequence. Austria was not satisfied with the Balkan settlement. Serbia now regarded war against Austria-Hungary, as inevitable. Extreme Serbian nationalists formed the Union of Death (commonly known as the Black Hand Society), a secret organization dedicated to effecting the restoration of …

The Balkan Wars

The Balkan Wars: In 1912 an unprecedented development had taken place. Owing largely to the statesmanship of Venizelos of Greece, a league had been formed between Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria. There were a number of factors that helped to bring about the unity of the Balkans against Turkey. The success of Austria in annexing Bosnia …