Category: History

Causes of the Reformation Movement

Reformation Movement: Meaning of Reformation: The term Reformation refers to a great religious reform movement in Europe during the 16th century. There was a big protest against the Christian Church in different parts of Europe and it ultimately resulted in the emergence of the Protestant Christian religion. This great religious movement was not only the evidence …

Battle of Plassey 1757

Battle of Plassey 1757: Battle of Plassey Background: (1) Building up of Animosity- After the death of Alivardi Khan, Siraj-ud-daula succeeded him as the Nawab of Bengal. From the very beginning of his rule, he wanted to check the growing power of the British. He tried to control the corrupt British officials and as such, became …

Shivaji as a Nation Builder

Shivaji as a Nation Builder: Shivaji’s greatest achievement was to weld together the Maratha race which was scattered like atoms through many Deccan Kingdoms into a mighty nation and to inspire them with ideals of unity and “Swaraj”. It was not in courage and physical strength that the Maratha lacked, it was the only inspiration that …

Causes of Failure of Muhammad Tughlaq

Causes of Failure of Muhammad Tughlaq: On account of the failure of his various impolitic schemes, there was great discontent among the Amirs and the nobles. The last sixteen years of the Sultan’s reign were a period of revolts and rebellions which he repressed at a heavy cost. There was a failure in rainfall and famines …

Gupta Art and Architecture

Gupta Art and Architecture: The three closely allied arts of architecture, sculpture and painting attained a high level of excellence during the Gupta period. The period witnessed the culmination of earlier tendencies and ushered in a new style in the movement of architectural types and forms. The period witnessed the culmination of earlier tendencies and ushered …

Gupta Literature

Gupta Literature: The Sanskrit language became prominent during the Gupta period. Nagari script had evolved from the Brahmi script. Numerous works in classical Sanskrit came to be written in the forms of epic, lyrics, drama and prose. The best of the Sanskrit literature belonged to the Gupta age. Some of the notable Puranas and Smritis were …

Champaran Satyagraha 1917

Champaran Satyagraha 1917: The Champaran Satyagraha in 1917 was Gandhi’s first Satyagraha in India. In Champaran- a Permanent Settlement- there were large zamindari estates under rich and influential landlords. Most of the villages were leased out by the zamindars to thikadars of whom the most influential group was European indigo planters. Though the planters were- in …

Ahmedabad Mill Strike 1918

Ahmedabad Mill Strike 1918: Satyagraha in Gujarat in 1918 was not confined to Kaira. Gandhi organized a similar campaign in Ahmedabad. It received less publicity as it was directed not against government officials, but against Indian employers. As the mill-owners suffered labour shortage due to the outbreak of plague in late 1917, they tried to keep …

Kheda Satyagraha of 1918

Kheda Satyagraha: The scene of Gandhi’s second Indian satyagraha was much nearer his home, the Gujarat district of Kaira (Kheda). In 1917 excessive rain considerably damaged the Kharif crop. The result was a poor harvest. To it was added the outbreak of a severe epidemic of plague. The people hardest hit were landless labourers. Though the …

Causes for the Rise of Renaissance

Rise of Renaissance: Meaning of the Term Renaissance: The word “Renaissance”, which in French means “rebirth”, was a cultural movement. It refers to the significant changes that took place in Europe during the transition period between the medieval and modern. During this period there was a revival of learning based on classical sources, the rise of …