Category: Chemistry

Bonding in Some Diatomic Molecules (Applications of Molecular Orbital Theory)

Bonding in Some Diatomic Molecules: Hydrogen Molecule (H2): The electronic configuration of H is 1s1. Thus the formation of the H2 molecule involves the linear combination of 1s orbital of one H-atom with 1s-orbital of another H-atom forming two molecular orbitals. The molecular orbital formed by the addition overlap is known as bonding molecular orbital and …

Molecular Orbitals

What is Molecular Orbital? When two atomic orbitals overlap, they lose their identity and form new orbitals known as Molecular orbitals which is defined as “the region in space defined by its size and shape associated with two or more atoms in a molecule and having a capacity of two electrons. Thus, a molecular orbital is …

Vitamins-Sources and Deficiency Diseases

Vitamins-Sources and Deficiency Diseases: Vitamins- Vitamins as the name suggest are vital minerals for life. These are organic compounds which are essential for normal metabolism of body cell though they neither supply energy nor serve as a building material. Vitamin free diet causes certain diseases and may even cause death. These are not synthesised by the …

Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

Shapes of Atomic Orbitals: s- Orbitals: When a graph is plotted between the probability of finding the electron (ψ2) and its difference from the centre of the nucleus, the curve thus obtained is known as “Probability Distribution Curve“. The probability distribution curve for 1s orbital shows that the probability of finding the electron is maximum near …

Atomic Orbital and Bond Order

Atomic Orbital and Bond Order: Concept of Atomic Orbital: The behaviour of microscopic particles like an electron is now explained on the basis of a new concept known as “Quantum Mechanics” or “Wave Mechanics” which takes into consideration “Uncertainty Principle” as well as “dual nature of matter“. Keeping in view Bohr’s concept, de-Broglie’s dual concept and …

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Due to the dual nature of matter and radiation, it is impossible in case of small particles such as electrons to determine simultaneously both position and velocity (or momentum) with absolute accuracy. This fact was first noted by Werner Heisenberg’s in 1927 and he proposed a principle known as Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle which …

Difference between Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbital

Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbital: The following are the points of difference between Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbital. Bonding Molecular Orbital (B.M.O) Anti-Bonding Molecular Orbital (A.B.M.O) It is formed by the additive overlap of waves function of atomic orbitals i.e. ΨB2 = (ΨA + ΨB)2 It is formed by the subtractive overlap of wave functions of …

de-Broglie Hypothesis (Dual Nature of Matter)

de-Broglie Hypothesis: In 1905, Einstein reported that certain properties like photo-electric effect and black body radiations can be explained by considering the particle aspect of light. On the other hand, certain properties like Reflection, interference and diffraction can be explained by considering the wave aspect of light. Thus light posses dualism or double character. In 1924, …

Dual Nature of Radiations and Matter

Dual Nature of Radiations: In 1856 James Clark Maxwell stated that light, X-rays, γ-rays and heat rays, etc. emit energy continuously in the form of radiation or waves and the energy is called radiant energy. These waves are associated with electric and magnetic fields, so these waves are called electromagnetic waves or radiation. These waves are …