Category: Science

Crystal Field Theory or Ligand Field Theory

Crystal Field Theory: This theory was developed by Hans Bethe (1929) and John Van Vleck (1932). The main postulates of this theory are- (1) According to this theory there exist an electrostatic force of attraction between the metal ion and ligand i.e. this theory consider the ionic bond between metal ion and ligand. (2) The interactions …

Organometallic Compounds

Organometallic Compounds: Organometallic chemistry constitutes one of the most important areas of chemistry that unites the field of inorganic and organic chemistry together. As the name implies, organometallic compounds contain both a metal component as well as an organic component. Organometallic chemistry is that branch of chemistry that deals with compounds containing at least one direct …

Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube

Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube: Consider a glass capillary of radius R dipped in water as shown in Figure a. The pressure just above the liquid surface in the capillary is equal to atmospheric pressure po. As the meniscus is concave and nearly spherical, the pressure below the meniscus will be (po – 2T/r) …

Rhizopus Reproduction Methods

Rhizopus Reproduction Methods: Rhizopus reproduces by following methods- Vegetative Reproduction: Vegetative Reproduction takes place by fragmentation. The hyphae break up into small pieces called fragments. Each fragment by apical growth and branching forms a new mycelium under favourable conditions. Asexual Reproduction: Asexual Reproduction takes place under favourable conditions of temperature and moisture. It takes place as …

Rhizopus Morphology and Cell Structure

Rhizopus Morphology and Cell Structure: Rhizopus is also called a common bread mould or black mould. Morphology- The plant body of Rhizopus is a thallus and is called Mycelium. The mycelium consists of a network of a thread-like structure called hyphae. The mycelium of Rhizopus consists of three types of hyphae- (1) Stolons or Stoloniferous Hyphae …

Gametophyte and Sporophyte of Funaria

Gametophyte and Sporophyte of Funaria: Gametophyte of Funaria: A gametophyte in Funaria is represented by a small leafy plant body and a thread-like structure called protonema. A gametophyte is a short but erect structure that is about 1-3 centimetres in height. It is green in colour and shows radial symmetry. It is differentiated into three parts. …

Beneficial Activities of Bacteria

Beneficial Activities of Bacteria: (1) Mineralizers- Living organisms take inorganic metabolites from the physical environment. Some of them are used in the manufacture of organic metabolites. On the death of living organisms, these materials are returned to the environment. Microbes (and fungi) gradually decompose the dead remains of living beings and transform them into the same …

Harmful Activities of Bacteria

Harmful Activities of Bacteria: (1) Food Spoilage- Some of the saprophytic bacteria cause spoilage of our food and food products and render them unfit for human consumption. Common examples of spoilage are rotting of vegetables, fruits, meat, bread, spoilage of jellies, jams and pickles, and souring of cheese, butter and milk. (2) Food Poisoning- Some saprophytic …