Category: Social Science

July Revolution of 1830 Causes

July Revolution of 1830: After the fall of Napoleon, the Bourbon line of King was restored in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. The new monarch was determined to act constitutionally. He issued the famous Constitutional Charter which established a legislature of two houses- the Chamber of Peers, appointed for life and the …

Instruments of the Policy of Prestige

Instruments of the Policy of Prestige: The instruments of the policy of prestige can be broken down into the following three headings- Diplomatic Ceremonial: The first instrument of demonstrating one’s power is through diplomatic ceremonies. Kings of Europe paid great attention to the question of the diplomatic ceremony, partly on the assumption that the resolution of …

The Greek War of Independence 1827-29

The Greek War of Independence 1827-29: The Greeks were the first to achieve their emancipation. Though forming part of the Ottoman Empire, the Greeks enjoyed a practical independence subject only to their sending to Constantinople an annual tribute in money and in sailors to man the imperial navy. The memories of Hellenic culture also contributed to …

The Revolution of 1820

The Revolution of 1820: The chief European powers who made a territorial settlement at Vienna were determined that they must keep Europe at peace. Two international organizations were ready to do this- the Holy Alliance and the Quadruple Alliance. The Holy Alliance met with failure. But the same could not be said of the Quadruple Alliance …

Metternich System (1815-1848)

Metternich System: The period from 1815 to 1848 has usually been called the ‘Era of Metternich’ for during these years he was the central figure in European politics. For the preservation of Habsburg dominion inhabited by Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Rumanians, and Poles, Metternich devised his famous system. He was the apostle of conservatism. ‘Govern and …

Criticism of the Vienna Settlement

Criticism of the Vienna Settlement: The territorial adjustments made at the Congress of Vienna ignored the principles of liberalism and nationalism. It was in defiance of the principle of nationalism, Austria was given a commanding position in Italy, that Norway was handed from Denmark to Sweden and Belgium was united with Holland. Germany and Italy were …