What is Protocooperation? Give Some Examples.

Protocooperation Definition:

It is an association between organisms of different species in which both are mutually benefitted but they can live without each other. It means protocooperation is equally beneficial for both but is not obligatory.

Protocooperation Examples:

(1) Some birds like Red-billed oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorhynchus) and Yellow-billed oxpecker (Buphagus africanus) sit on the back of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and on the back of cattle and feed on the ticks and other ectoparasites sticking to the skin. In this relationship, birds get food, and rhinos or cattle are relieved of the parasites. These birds also warn their host of approaching danger by flying off for security and making rhino alert.

(2) Crocodile bird (Pluvianus aegyptius) enters the mouth of a crocodile and feeds on parasitic leeches.

(3) Shrimp stands on the coral reef and waves its brightly colored antennae. This attracts fishes that come closer and shrimp is able to feed on their parasites.

Mutualism or Symbiosis
Decomposition in an Ecosystem
Environmental Ethics
Forest Ecosystem
Deforestation Causes and Consequences
What is Carbon Cycle? Process of Carbon Cycle
Deforestation– NIOS

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