Provisions of the Warsaw Pact

Provisions of the Warsaw Pact:

In 1955 eight European nations, viz., Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Rumania and the USSR with an observer from Red China met in Moscow, concluded a Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance and decided to set up a joint command of the armed forces of the signatory states. The unified command of the armed forces of the eight countries was to have its headquarters in Moscow and was to be headed by I.S Koniev, Marshal of the Soviet Union. The defence ministers or other military leaders of the signatory countries were appointed Deputy Commanders-in-Chief and given command of the armed forces assigned to the unified armed forces by each respective signatory country. The question of participation of the German Democratic Republic in measures pertaining to the armed forces of the unified command was left to be considered later on.

The following are the provisions of the Warsaw Pact-

Article 1 of the treaty provided that the Contracting Parties undertook, in accordance with the United Nations Charter, to abstain in their international relations from threats of violence or its use and to settle international disputes by peaceful means, so as not to put each other or international peace in danger.

In Article 2 the Contracting Parties declared their readiness to cooperate in all international actions with the purpose of assuring international peace and security. The Contracting Parties were to strive to reach an agreement with the states desiring to cooperate in that cause and take measures to reduce armaments and the ban of atomic, hydrogen and other kinds of weapons of mass destruction.

Article 3 provided that the Contracting Parties were to consult mutually on all important international problems affecting their common interests, taking as their guide the interests of strengthening international peace and security. They were to consult each other immediately in the event of a threat of armed attack against one or several states, signatories to the Pact, in the interests of their ensuring mutual defence and of maintaining peace and security.

Article 4 provided that in case of armed aggression in Europe against one or several states party to the treaty by a state or group of each state-member of the treaty, in order to put into practice the right to individual or collective self-defence, was to afford to the state or states which were the object of such aggression, immediate assistance, individually and in agreement with other states, party to the treaty, with all means which appeared necessary, including the use of armed force. The Contracting Parties were required to take immediate joint measures necessary to establish and preserve international peace and security. Measures taken on the basis of the Article were to assist security in accordance with the United Nations Charter. The measures were to be stopped as soon as the Security Council took measures for establishing and preserving international peace and security.

According to Article 5, the Contracting Parties agreed to set up joint command of their armed forces to be allotted by agreement between the Powers, at the disposal of this command and used on the basis of jointly established principles. They were also required to take other agreed measures necessary to strengthen their defences in order to protect the peaceful toil of their people guaranteeing the integrity of their frontiers and territories and ensure their defence against possible aggression.

According to Article 6, with the object of carrying out consultations provided by the present treaty between the states participating in the Treaty and for the examination of questions arising in connection with the fulfilment of the treaty, a Political Consultative Committee was to be set up in each state participating in the treaty. The Committee was authorised to set any auxiliary organs it considered necessary.

In Article 7, the Contracting Parties undertook not to enter into any coalition or union and not to enter into agreements whose aims were contrary to the terms of the treaty. The Contracting Parties declared that their application under the existing international agreements was not contrary to the terms of the present treaty.

In Article 8, the Contracting Parties declared that they would act in the spirit of friendship and cooperation in order further to develop the economic and cultural ties between them and would be guided by the principles of mutual respect and would not interfere with the internal affairs of each other.

Article 11 provided that the Treaty was to remain in force for 20 years. Those states which did not give notice of abrogation one year before the Treaty expired, were to remain bound by it for a further period of 10 years. In the event of a system of collective security, being set up in Europe and a Pact to that effect being signed, the present Treaty was to lapse from the date on which such a collective security treaty came into force. The Warsaw Pact is a carbon copy of NATO.

SEATO or Manila PactSubsidiary Alliance- Merits And Demerits
Role of the SEATODoctrine Of Lapse- Lord Dalhousie
The Baghdad Pact or the CENTO (Central Treaty Organization)The Morley-Minto Reform or the Indian Council Act 1909
Role of the CENTO or the Baghdad PactTowards Formation of State– NIOS

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