Other Social Reform Movements

Social Reform:

social reform

Prarthna Samaj – 

  • As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang.
  • Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”.
  • The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter caste marriage, widow remarriage, night schools for the poor, setting up widow’s refuge homes & missions for depressed classes of society.
  • Because of their good work & a  neutral stand, the Prarthna Samaj movement spread in the South too. This was mainly due to the efforts of Viresalingam Pantulu.

Young Bengal Movement –

  • It was initated by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio.
  • This movement was inspired by Mazzini’s Young Italy Movement.
  • He was an Anglo-Indian teacher of the Hindu College from 1826 to 1831 & he was removed in 1831 because of his radicalism.
  • Derozio drew round him students of the Hindu College & exercised unprecedented influence over his pupils both in & outside the class. He urged them to live & die for truth– to cultivate & practise all the virtues, shunning vice in every shape.
  • He is called the First Nationalist Poet of Modern India.
  • He edited journals like Hesperus & Calcutta Literary Gazette.
  • He formed many associations like Academic Association, Society for the Acquisition of General Knowledge, Banghit Sabha, Anglo-Indian Hindu Association & Debating Club.

Satya Shodhak Samaj – 

  • Jyotiba Phule was born in 1828 in a Mali family.
  • His education, his personal experiences & association with Christian missionaries, made him critical of the prevailing Hindu religion & custom.
  • To liberate the depressed classes & make them conscious of their rights by educating them, he founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873.
  • To carry forward his anti-Brahmin Activities in an organised manner, he wrote two critical works- Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak & Ghulamgiri.
  • Also founded Deenbandhu Sarvajanik Sabha (1884) for the same purpose.

Social Service Organizations –

  • Seva Sadan – 
  1. founded in 1885 by Parsi social reformer Behramji M.Malabri.
  2. Against Child marriage & enforced widowhood.
  3. Journal – Indian Spectator. 
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale founded the Servants of India Society in Bombay in 1905.
  • Poona Seva Sadan was founded by Pandita Rambai, G.K.Devadutt & Maharshi Karve in 1909 to provide education & shelter for widows.
  • Social Service League, founded in 1911 by N.M.Joshi in Bombay for promoting better living conditions of the working classes in the Bombay slums.
  • Seva Samiti – founded by H.N.Kunzru in Allahabad in 1914 as a social service organization. 

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