As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang.
Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”.
The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter caste marriage, widow remarriage, night schools for the poor, setting up widow’s refuge homes & missions for depressed classes of society.
Because of their good work & a neutral stand, the Prarthna Samaj movement spread in the South too. This was mainly due to the efforts of Viresalingam Pantulu.
Young Bengal Movement:
It was initated by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio.
This movement was inspired by Mazzini’s Young Italy Movement.
He was an Anglo-Indian teacher of the Hindu College from 1826 to 1831 & he was removed in 1831 because of his radicalism.
Derozio drew round him students of the Hindu College & exercised unprecedented influence over his pupils both in & outside the class. He urged them to live & die for truth– to cultivate & practise all the virtues, shunning vice in every shape.
He is called the First Nationalist Poet of Modern India.
He edited journals like Hesperus & Calcutta Literary Gazette.
He formed many associations like Academic Association, Society for the Acquisition of General Knowledge, Banghit Sabha, Anglo-Indian Hindu Association & Debating Club.
Satya Shodhak Samaj:
Jyotiba Phule was born in 1828 in a Mali family.
His education, his personal experiences & association with Christian missionaries, made him critical of the prevailing Hindu religion & custom.
To liberate the depressed classes & make them conscious of their rights by educating them, he founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873.
To carry forward his anti-Brahmin Activities in an organised manner, he wrote two critical works- Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak & Ghulamgiri.
Also founded Deenbandhu Sarvajanik Sabha (1884) for the same purpose.
Social Service Organizations:
Seva Sadan –
founded in 1885 by Parsi social reformer Behramji M.Malabri.
Against Child marriage & enforced widowhood.
Journal – Indian Spectator.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale founded the Servants of India Society in Bombay in 1905.
Poona Seva Sadan was founded by Pandita Rambai, G.K.Devadutt & Maharshi Karve in 1909 to provide education & shelter for widows.
Social Service League, founded in 1911 by N.M.Joshi in Bombay for promoting better living conditions of the working classes in the Bombay slums.
Seva Samiti – founded by H.N.Kunzru in Allahabad in 1914 as a social service organization.