Category: Geography

NIOS Book: Geography

The Study of Geography as a Discipline Nature of Geography as a discipline. Changing Face of the Earth Earth’s interior and its Material. Dynamic surface of the earth.  Evolution of Land forms due to internal forces.  The work of running water and underground water. The work of moving ice, wind and sea waves. Major landforms

NIOS Book: Environmental Science

Environment through Ages Origin of Earth and Evolution of the Environment. Environment and Human Society. Degradation of Natural Environment.   Ecological Concepts and Issues Principles of Ecology. Ecosystem. Natural Ecosystem. Human Modified Ecosystems.  Human Impact on Environment Human societies.  Deforestation.  Contemporary Environment Issues Environmental Pollution. Environment and Health. Disasters and their Management. National Environmental Issues.

NIOS Book: Environmental Science (Hindi)

पर्यावरण युगों तक पृथ्वी का उद् भव एवं पर्यावरण का विकास. पर्यावरण एवं मानव समाज. प्राकृतिक पर्यावरण का अवक्रमण.    पारिस्थितिकी संकल्पना के मुद्दे पारिस्थितिकी के सिद्धांत. पारितंत्र. प्राकृतिक पारितंत्र. मानव रूपांतरित पारितंत्र.   पर्यावरण पर पड़ता मानव का प्रभाव मानव समाज. वनोन्मूलन. सामाजिक पर्यावरणीय मुद्दे पर्यावरणीय प्रदूषण. पर्यावरण और स्वास्थ्य. आपदाएं और उनका प्रबंधन.

Rivers of India

(a) The Indus System- Indus –  also known as sindhu. Westernmost Himalayan river. Originate from a glacier near Bokhar chu in Tibet region. it enters India in the ladakh district of J&K. Mountain range – Kailash. in Tibet, Indus is known as Singi Khamban  or Lion’s mouth. Several tributaries like the Zaskar, the Nubra, the


Ecosystem –  The term Ecology was coined  by Earnst Haeckel in 1866. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment consists of  other living organisms (biotic) & physical (abiotic) components. Ecosystem is a self-sustained & self-regulated segment of nature that consists of a biotic

Natural Vegetation

Tropical Evergreen Forest:- Also called Tropical rain forests. Found in the western slope of the western ghats(especially the malabar coast), hills of the northeastern region and the Andaman & Nicobar Island. Also Silent Valley in Kerala. Found in warm & humid areas. Annual precipitation of over 200 cm. Mean annual temperature above 22 degree celsius.

National Park & Wildlife Sanctuaries

National Park:- A National Park is an area dedicated for the conservation of wildlife along with its environment. It is also meant for enjoyment through tourism but without impairing the environment. Grazing of domestic animals, all private rights and forestry activities are prohibited within a National Park. Each National Park usually aims at conservation specifically

Solar System

Solar System Sun account for 99.85% of mass of the solar system. It continuously gives us energy in the form of Visible light, infra-red, ultra-violet, x-rays etc. The period of revolution of sun around the galactic centre is 250 million years and is called as cosmotic year or galactic year. Like all other stars sun is mainly