Causes of the Success of the Reformation Movement:
Owing to the sincere efforts of Martin Luther, Zwingli, and Clavin, the Reformation Movement went on. A lot of changes were introduced in the organization of the Church in many countries in accordance with the principles of the reformers. Protestantism gained ground in most of the countries of Europe except France and Spain. The states of England, Norway, Scotland, Sweden, and North Germany stood against the Pope. In these countries, Protestantism was accepted and independent national Churches were established. The contribution of Heney VIII in connection with the propagation of Protestantism in England was most remarkable. After parting with the Pope, Henry VIII became the supreme head of the English Church.
The pioneers of the Reformation Wycliffe and Husse, could not earn as much success as Luther and Clavin did. There were many reasons for it. Wycliffe and Husse incited people against social disparity. It turned them against the reformers themselves. But Luther and Calvin avoided this mistake. Luther did not support the peasant revolt. He condemned it. Therefore, the bourgeoisie supported them and helped the reformers in many ways. The other cause of the success of the Reformation movement was that Luther and Calvin stirred the spirit of nationalism against the sovereignty of the Pope. They stated that foreign interference in the political, social, economic, and religious matters of a state was wrong. These reformers held that a state should have independent sovereignty to deal with its internal affairs.
So the foreign authority of the Pope over the religion of any state was detrimental to a nation according to their thinking. Consequently, the rulers grew more responsive and vigilant to get rid of the Pope’s control. They began to encourage and support the religious reformers. A concept confirming a nation’s right of possession over the Church property inspired the rulers to contribute their active support to the Reformation movement. The third reason for the success of the Reformation movement was that the practical usefulness of the Church was put to an end. After the Renaissance, education was imparted independently. The changing social and intellectual perspectives strengthened the Reformation movement.