Conquest of Africa by the Imperialistic Nations of Europe:
The European nations had developed their contacts with Africa in the 15th century. Their relations were limited to only the Coastal areas and the slave trade. They had no knowledge about the interior areas of Africa. In the 19th century, the Europeans became serious to occupy the African territories by conquest. Before 1850, the Portuguese, the Dutch, the British and the French had dominated the coastal regions of Africa. In the early 19th century the British took over the Cape Colony established by the Dutch in South Africa. The Orange Free State and the Transvaal states which were set up by the Dutch became independent by 1850 A.D. Cecil Rhodes- the British adventurer established Rhodesia. A white minority rule over Southern Rhodesia exists even now.
The French had occupied Algeria in the north. The European powers could conquer only one-tenths of Africa by 1875 A.D. England, France and Italy signed an agreement in 1878. France agreed upon the British occupation over the island of Cyprus. England allowed France to occupy Tunisia. Later on, France occupied Cyprus. As per the agreement of 1900, France occupied Morocco and Italy occupied Cyrenaica and Tripoli.
England, Portugal, Germany and Italy occupied East Africa. In the beginning, the Portuguese occupied Mozambique. England acquired the German East African colonies (after the first world war) and named them British East Africa or Kenya.
King Leopold II of Belgium acquired about 25 Lakh square kilometres of congo which were rich in ivory and rubber. In West and Central Africa, the Brtish began with the slave trade and finally conquered Nigeria and declared her as her protectorate. Gambia, Ashanti, Gold Coast and Sierra Leone were also occupied by Britian. The French explorer de Bazza won the territory of French Congo. Following the instance of France and Britian, Germany also occupied Togol and Cameroons on West Coasts and dominated a part of South-West Africa. Spain had set up her colonies in Ride Oeo and Spanish Guinea. In brief, we can say that the explorers, missionaries and traders took a keen interest in spreading the message of Christianity and gaining conquest over Africa. Afterwards, the Western government occupied many territories. Italy had assured herself the support of European nations in her claims over Tripoli and Cyrenaica, which were the possessions of the Turkish empire. Italy had declared war against Turkey and occupied the two provinces, which were given the old Roman name of Libya.
Egypt was a province of the Turkish empire when the scramble for colonies started in the 19th century. Since the time of Napolean, France had been interest in Egypt. A French Company had gained a concession from Ismail Pasha, the Governor of Egypt, to dig a canal across the isthmus of Suez. The canal was completed in 1869 and aroused British interest in the area. In 1882, there was a revolt against Anglo-French control and in suppressing the revolt, the British armies conquered Egypt. Restoration of law and order and protection of the Suez Canal were the reasons given for the military intervention in Egypt. In 1914, when the First World War started England announced that Egypt was no longer a Turkish province but a British protectorate.
Sudan, or what was earlier known as Egyptian Sudan was jointly exploited by Egypt and Britian. A Sudanese leader who had proclaimed himself the Mahdi had in the 1880s succeeded in overthrowing Egyptian and British control over Sudan. His army had defeated Egyptian and British troops. In 1898, Britsh and Egyptian troops succeeded in recapturing Sudan after a long and bloody war. Sudan came under British rule.