General Characteristic Properties Of Electrovalent And Covalent Compounds:
The general characteristic properties of electrovalent and covalent compounds are different because the nature of chemical bonding is different in these two types of chemical compounds. A comparison of electrovalent and covalent compounds is as under-
They contain electrovalent linkage which is formed by transference of electrons from one atom to the other, only single bond is involved in these compounds.
They contain covalent linkage which is formed by mutual sharing of electrons between the two atoms. Single, double and triple bongs are involved in these compounds.
The electrovalent compounds mostly exist in the solid state. They are very hard.
The covalent compounds generally exist in three states- solid, liquid and gaseous states. They are soft and volatile.
They are generally soluble in water but are insoluble in organic solvents like benzene, ether etc.
They are soluble in organic solvents but are insoluble or sparingly soluble in water.
The crystals of electrovalent compounds are made up of ions.
The crystals of covalent compounds are made up of molecules.
They are good conductors of electricity in solution and in molten state.
They are bad conductors of electricity in solution and in molten or fusion state.
Melting and boiling points
The melting and boiling points of these compounds are generally high.
The melting and boiling points of these compounds are usually low.
They are highly polar and undergo ionization in water. Example- KCl—-> K+ + Cl–.
They are usually non-polar and do not ionize in water. A few are partially polar in nature. Example- HCl, NH3 etc.
Type of Bond
In electrovalent linkage, the ions are held together by electrostatic force of attraction.
In covalent linkage, the molecules are held together by weak force of attraction called Van der Waals forces.
Rate of Reaction
The electrovalent compounds give the reactions involving ions and they are fast.
The covalent compounds give reactions involving molecules and they are slow.
The electrovalent bond is non-rigid and non-directional. Hence, the electrovalent compounds are incapable of showing the phenomenon of space isomerism
The covalent bond is rigid and directional and thus covalent compounds are capable of exhibiting the phenomenon of space isomerism.