The chemical name of washing soda is Sodium Carbonate. It is prepared from sodium chloride by the Solvay process.
The raw material used in the manufacture of sodium carbonate is Sodium chloride (Common salt, NaCl), Ammonia (NH3), and Limestone (to get carbon dioxide, CO2).
Chemical Formula is Na2CO3.10H2O.
Important uses of Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda) includes the following–
Sodium carbonate is used in laundry as washing soda. In other words, sodium carbonate is used as a “cleansing agent” for domestic purposes. In fact, sodium carbonate is a component of many dry soap powders.
Sodium carbonate is used for softening hard water.
Sodium carbonate is used in the manufacture of many useful sodium compounds like caustic soda, glass, water-glass, borax, and soap. It is also used in the manufacture of paper.
Sodium carbonate is a valuable laboratory reagent. It is used as a standard base in acid-base titrations, to standardize acid solutions.
Uses of Baking Soda:
The chemical name of baking soda is Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Hydrogencarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate is manufactured from sodium chloride by the Solvay process.
Chemical Formula is 2NaHCO3.
Important uses of Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) includes the following–
Sodium bicarbonate is used in fire extinguishers.
Sodium bicarbonate is used in medicine to remove the acidity of the stomach. Being alkaline, sodium bicarbonate neutralises excess acid and relieves indigestion.
Sodium bicarbonate is used in the preparation of baking powder. Baking powders contain sodium bicarbonate and an acid like tartaric acid (or citric acid). When baking powder is added to water (or when baking powder is heated) then sodium bicarbonate and acid present into react to produce carbon dioxide gas. During the preparation of cakes, etc. this carbon dioxide gas causes the cake to rise and become light.
Uses of Lime:
Chemically, lime is calcium oxide and its formula is CaO. Thus, lime is an oxide of calcium metal. It is also called quicklime. Lime (or calcium oxide) is prepared by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) to a temperature of 800°C to 1000°C in lime kin.
Important uses of Calcium Oxide (Lime) includes the following–
It is used in the manufacture of cement and glass.
It is used for drying gases and alcohol.
It is used as a basic lining in furnaces.
It is used in the preparation of calcium carbide, basic calcium nitrate, and calcium bisulfite.
It is used in the extraction of iron to free the haematite ore from sand.
Uses of Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked Lime, Ca(OH)2):
A solution of calcium hydroxide in water called lime-water is used for testing carbon dioxide gas in chemistry laboratories.
A suspension of slaked lime in water is used in white-washing buildings. The calcium hydroxide solution applied to the walls reacts slowly with the carbon dioxide of air to form calcium carbonate which gives a bright appearance to the walls.
Slaked lime is used by brick-layers (masons) to make mortar. Lime mortar is prepared by mixing slaked lime with sand and water.
Slaked lime is used in the preparation of bleaching powder, caustic soda, and ammonia.
It is used by the farmers to reduce the acidity of the soil.
It is used for softening temporary hard water.
It is used to remove hair from hides before they are tanned or converted into leather.
Uses of Bleaching Powder (Calcium Oxychloride, CaOCl2):
Bleaching powder is commonly used for bleaching washed clothes in the laundry.
Bleaching powder is used for bleaching cotton and linen in the textile industry and for bleaching wood pulp in the paper industry.
Bleaching powder is used for disinfecting thedrinking water supply. That is, for making drinking water free from germs.
Bleaching powder is used for the manufacture of chloroform (CHCl3).
Bleaching powder is used for making wool unshrinkable.
Bleaching powder is used as an oxidizing agent in many chemical industries.
Uses of Plaster of Paris:
Chemically, the Plaster of Paris is calcium sulfate hemihydrate or calcium sulfate half-hydrate i.e. (CaSO4)2.H2O.
Plaster of Paris is prepared from gypsum i.e. CaSO4.2H2O. When gypsum is heated to a temperature of 120°C, it loses three-fourths of its water of crystallization and forms the Plaster of Paris.
Important uses of Plaster of Paris includes the following–
Plaster of Paris is used in hospitals for setting fractured bones in the right position to ensure correct healing. It keeps the fractured bone straight. This use is based on the fact that when Plaster of Paris is mixed with water and applied around the fractured limbs, it sets into a hard mass. In this way, it keeps the bone joints in a fixed position.
Plaster of Paris is used in chemistry laboratories for sealing the air-gaps in apparatus where the air-tight arrangement is required.
Plaster of Paris is used in making castings for statues, cheap ornaments, toys, and decorative materials.
The plaster of Paris is used as a fire-proofing material.
Plaster of Paris is used in making blackboard chalk.
The excess of iron salts in the human body leads to a disease known as-Siderosis.
The excess of copper metal in the human body leads to a disease known as- Wilson’s Disease.
The loss of water of crystallization from a hydrated salt to the atmosphere, on keeping it exposed to the air, is called- Efflorescence.