Month: April 2019


Jainism Important Facts: The name of two Jain Tirthankaras (prophets or gurus), Rishabha & Arishtanemi, are found in the Rigveda. The Vishnu Purana & the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishabha as incarnation of Narayana. There were 24 tirthankaras, all kshatriyas & belonging to the Royal family. The first was Rishabha, the founder of Jainism & the


Ecosystem: The term ecology was coined by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment consists of other living organisms (biotic) & physical (abiotic) components. The ecosystem is a self-sustained & self-regulated segment of nature that consists of a biotic

Other Social Reform Movements

Social Reform Movements: Prarthna Samaj:  As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang. Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”. The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan & the Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement: Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was instrumental in fostering differences between the Hindus & the Muslims. In the initial years he was a staunch nationalist who regarded the two communities as “the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is India”. The suppression of the Muslims following the Revolt of 1857 convinced Sir Sayyid