Agricultural Developments in the Post-Independence Period:
The government of India has made numerous efforts to overcome the problems of Indian agriculture during the Post-Independence period. Some of the efforts are as follows-
- Abolition of Zamindari System- In the Post-Independence period Government has abolished the Zamindari system. The actual tiller has obtained ownership rights over the land that he works on and raises crops. The government has also enforced a land ceiling act. Under this act, no farmer can own land more than the ceiling limits. Thus redistribution of agricultural land has benefited countless farmers, who were previously landless. After obtaining ownership rights whole-hearted hard work of the farmer has led to a vast increase in agricultural yield per hectare and improvement in their economic conditions.
- Chakbandi- Farmer’s farms were small in size and they were fragmented and scattered at various places before Independence. These farms were uneconomic. Huge fertile land was also wasted in boundaries. In order to remove these drawbacks, our government consolidated the fragmented and smallholdings at one place and in large size. Chakbandi has led to increasing in agricultural production.
- Development of Irrigation Facilities- Uncertainty and unevenness of rainfall had led agriculture to depend on irrigation. In order to modernize agriculture, it is necessary to develop irrigation. Our government has developed numerous irrigational projects. Small irrigation projects have also been taken in hand on a local basis, electricity is being provided to farmers in order to energize tube-wells and lift system.
- Improved Seeds and Chemical Fertilizers- Improved seeds and chemical fertilizers form the basis for the modernization of agriculture. The government has opened agriculture universities, agriculture research institutes, agricultural farms and demonstration farms. Here seeds are improved and the demonstration is given to farmers for use of chemical fertilizers and improved seeds. Farmers get them on subsidised rates and on a loan basis. Co-operative Societies and Development Blocks provide these facilities to the Farmers.
- Use of Insecticides and Pesticides- After Independence insecticides and pesticides are used in agriculture in order to do away with various diseases and pests. They are sprinkled by Development Blocks and Co-operative Societies on the affected crops by helicopters and aircraft.
- Multi-purpose Societies and Co-operative Banks- The government has established multipurpose societies and co-operative banks in rural areas for the welfare of farmers and artisans. They advance loans to them for various purposes. They include purchasing insecticides, improved seeds, purchase of cows, bullocks, buffaloes, agricultural implements and tools, for establishing cottage industries and even for social activities like marriages and death ceremonies. Societies also purchase the produce of farmers at support prices announced by the Government every year.
- Agriculture Price Commission- Every year the commission announces the support prices of agricultural produce. This has helped farmers to a great extent. Moneylenders cannot dare now exploit them and purchase their produce at throw-away prices. The government also purchases their produce at support prices and pays them in cash. Food Corporation of India also purchases cereals from farmers directly.
- Efforts to Reduce Pressure from Agriculture- Extension of education among rural population and establishment of the cottage and rural industries will help reduce pressure from agriculture. To implement these programmes adult education centres have been established, job opportunities are provided to rural educated youth, the government have reserved jobs for rural areas in government service.
- Use of Modern Scientific and Technological Techniques- Modern, scientific and technological techniques such as dry farming, multiple cropping, inter-cropping, intensive agriculture, rotation of crops, green revolution and mechanical agricultural devices help increase and improve productivity and fertility of agricultural land.