Artificial Transmutation of Elements

Artificial Transmutation of Elements:

The emission of α and β-particles from radioactive elements results in the formation of new elements which led scientists to find methods for the conversion of naturally stable elements into other elements by artificial disintegration. This artificial disintegration can be carried out by bombarding nuclei of atoms with high-speed projectiles (bombarding particles) like α-particles, β-particles, neutrons, protons, deutrons etc. This process of disintegrating a stable non-radioactive atomic nucleus artificially by bombardment with fast-moving projectiles like α-particles, β-particles, neutrons, protons, deutrons etc. resulting in the formation of a new element is known as Artificial Transmutation of Elements. The first artificial transmutation experiment was reported by Rutherford (1919) in which N-14 nuclide was bombarded by α-particles to get O-17 nuclide i.e.

7N14 + 2He4 ———–> 8O17 + 1H1

The bombarding projectiles are imparted high energy before bombarding the target nucleus by the device called Particle accelerator like linear accelerator, cyclotron, synchrotron etc. Various types of Artificial Transmutation of Elements are as follows-

  • Transmutation by α-particles (2He4)
7N14 + 2He4 ———–> 8O17 + 1H1 (α, P-type)
4Be9 + 2He4 ———–> 6C12 +0n1 (α, n-type)
  • Transmutation by Proton (1H1)
4Be9 + 1H1 ———–> 3Li6 + 2He4 (P, α-type)
4Be9 + 1H1 ———–> 4Be8 + 1D2 (P, d-type)
11Na23 + 1H1 ———–> 12Mg23 + 0n1 (P, n-type)
4Be9 + 1H1 ———–> 5B10 + 0r0 (P, r-type)
  • Transmutation by Neutrons (0n1)
7N14 + 0n1 ———–> 5B11 + 2He4 (n, α-type)
13Al27 + 0n1 ———–> 12Mg27 + 1H1 (n, P-type)
19K39 + 0n1 ———–> 19K38 + 2 0n1 (n, n-type)
11Na23 + 0n1 ———–> 11Na24+ 0r0 (n, r-type)
  • Transmutation by Deutrons (1D2)
83Bi209 + 1D2 ———–> 83Bi210 + 1H1 (d, P-type)
13Al27 + 1D2 ———–> 12Mg25 + 2He4 (d, α-type)
13Al27 + 1D2 ———–> 14Si28 + 0n1 (d, n-type)

Artificial disintegration by high energy r-radiations have also been reported. Example-

4Be9 + r ———–> 4Be8 + 0n1 (r, n)

Group 2 Elements (Alkaline Earth Metals)Ionisation Energy and Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements
Group 13 Elements (Boron Family)Transition Elements and its Classification
Group 14 Elements (Carbon Family)Racemic Mixture and its Resolution
Group 15 Elements (Nitrogen Family)Compounds of Carbon Containing Nitrogen– NIOS

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