Diseases Related to Marine Contamination:
Oceans and human health are linked together inextricably. Though human beings are studying marine environments for centuries it is only recently that they have started to study the impact of marine contamination on human beings. Since human beings are exposed to marine contamination through bathing, water sports, eating seafood, etc., a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases use to attack them through these routes. Some serious diseases caused in human beings due to marine contamination are mentioned below:
(1) Bathing and Swimming at marine coastal beeches cause enteric and respiratory diseases if sea water is contaminated by domestic wastewater containing fecal matter. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that about 150 million clinical cases of mild gastroenteritis and upper respiratory diseases are caused every year in human beings by taking baths in contaminated marine water.
(2) A number of infectious diseases attack people consuming seafood. These infectious diseases are Infectious Hepatitis-A (HAV), Reproductive Failure, Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia, etc. There are about 2.5 million clinical cases of Infectious Hepatitis globally with some 25,000 fatalities and 25,000 cases of long-term disabilities from liver damage caused by eating contaminated shellfish (Food and Agricultural Organization- FAO- 1999).
(3) Eating seafood contaminated by toxins from algal blooms causes poisoning like Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Ciguatera Poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (NSP), Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), etc. Some of the most reported cases are Paralysis, Neurological Toxicity, Human Neurobrucellosis, etc.
(4) Intestinal Nematodes, reproductive disorders, kidney failures, skin diseases, etc.