Education for National and Emotional Integration:
Men of different faiths and creeds live in India. So, it is essential for the unity and progress of the country that national and emotional integration should take place among people. After the Chinese and Pakistani aggression, its urgency has been more keenly felt. This work can be performed by education.
The aim of education is to build human character and to make the young generation so able that they might assist in the achievement of democratic values. Such education would unite all people together. If people would be educated in a scientific way, they would rise above the distinctions of political, economic, linguistic, religious and social differences in the interest of national integrity.
The British administration gave birth to many kinds of differences among Indian people. These differences got root in social, political and economic life. After independence, we had to face a lot of differences among people. There was nothing like unity in their social life. Since independence India has been facing all sorts of differences which hamper the unity and integrity of the country.
The Indian Constitution provided facilities to the minority. Due to the demand of people, certain new States based on language were carved out. Many mean, ambitious, selfish persons have also formed communal feelings. This went contrary to the solidarity and unity of our nation. Even at present, we have not gotten rid of these initial problems.
Committee For National Integration:
Keeping in view the object of national unity and solidarity, our Government formed two committees. Srimati Indira Gandhi and Dr Sampurnanand were the Chairman of these two committees. The committee headed by Srimati Indira Gandhi discussed the problem of integration and Dr Sampurnanand Committe considered the problem of emotional integartion in the country.
Education and Integration:
These Committees are of the opinion that it is education only which can establish National and Emotional Integration. Our ancient thinkers were also of this view.
In India folowing steps can be helpful for the national and emotional integrity-
- The pattern of education should base on the cultural and spiritual values of the country- If it is done, a sense of respect and love for the country would develop in the students and they would think themsleves united. This feeling would tie them all in unity.
- National policy of education- There shoukld be a national policy of education. This policy should have the same pattern from primary to University level throughoutthe length and breadth of the country. In such a system there would be one pattern of education in the whole of the country. And all people will imbibe one and the same cultural awakening.
- Minority group should also be treated on the same level- Every student should be taught three languages. Among these three languages, one language should be his mother tongue, the second National Language and the third language should be one that is of a different state or part of the country. It means that if the boy belongs to Northern India, he should learn a langauge of South India and vice versa.
Students should be admitted in institutions on the basis of their intelligence and ability and not on the basis of caste, religion or community.
Recognition to Institutions:
Such institutions where discriminatiory attitudes are encouraged, should not be given recognition.
Scholarships and Freeships:
Caste, religion or community should not be taken into consideration while granting scholarships or freeships to the students, but the grant or concessions shoul be allowed on the basis of their ability and finanical position.
Moreover, no hard and fast restriction should be imposed on the migration of the students from one state to another.
Teaching of National Language:
Hindi should be made compulsory at all levels. National language or the State language should be the medium of university education. English might be adopted for the time being in those states where Hindi has not been fully adopted.
Best efforts should be made for development of Indian languages. Such books should be prescribed through which a sense of national and emotional integration might develop.
National Anthem must be sung every day in the school and discussions on the subjects of national importance should also be held for ten minutes at least.
There should be an assembly of students, once in a month or session in which students should get together and take pledge for making sacrifice for the sake of the country.
Exchnage of Students:
Students of one region should be sent to other regions for their studies, i.e. students of South should get their studies in North and vice versa. The exchnage of teachers would also be beneficial.
Teaching of Histroy and Geography:
The teacghing of Geography and History shold be done in such a way that the students might get themselves well acquanited with the econimoic and social progress of the country. Books for the guidance of the teachers in this direction should also be written.
There should be an all India competition in “essay writing” in which students of all States of the country should participate. The subject of the essay should be based on the lives of different states.
Education regarding the values of Indian culture should compulsorily be imparted. If possible, teaching of moral values should also be given.
Thus we see that Casteism, Provincilaism, Communalism, lingustic differences, party-politics etc. are the main hindrances for the attainment. These hindrnaces should, however, be removed through non-violent means.
In this connection our late Primne Minsiter, Jawahar Lal Nehru remarked, “If silent non-violent revolution cannot create healthy condition for the ideal growth of national integration, pressure and coercion will automatically become the only two alternatives to attain national ends. But Indian-hood has non-violence as its anchor. The goal or our national integartion can be arrived at only throug a sustained application of love, sympathy and fellow-feeling on a plan of non-violent outlook”.
Thus, education could be utilized for national and emotional integration.