Educational Sociology and Education:
(1) Meaning of Education- Man comes into this world with certain animal tendencies and capabilities. In order to satisfy these tendencies, he starts making certain activities. As a result of this, he learns some things such as making different sounds from his mouth in different situations. But when parents, teachers and society organize these sounds into the form of language, the child learns to speak the language. In the eye of sociology, education is that which is learnt through the external environment. But society is the group of these individuals and its progress is possible in their progress. Therefore, in the words of Brown, “Education is the consciously-controlled process whereby changes in behaviours are produced in the person and through the person within the group”.
(2) Aim of Education- Although it is the work of philosophy to determine the aim of education, yet it does not mean that Educational Sociology has no concern with the aim of education. According to Educational Sociology, the main aim of education is to develop social qualities and democratic feelings in the children so that they may work for the welfare of society, nation and the world. Besides this, livelihood and the proper utilization of leisure are among the other aims of education.
(3) Function of Education- Payne has divided the functions of education into the following three categories-
- Assimilation of Traditions.
- Development of New Social Pattern.
- Creative and constructive role.
Keeping in view these functions of education, Munroe in his book, “Brief Course is the History of Education” enumerates the following functions of education-
- Diffusing of Knowledge- The progress of man and the society depends upon intelligence and intelliegnce depends upon mental power and knowledge . It is, therefore, the main aim of education to diffuse knowldge directly or indirectly.
- Educations as the means of Social Control- It is the demand of every society that its memebrs should behave in accordnace with its rules, ideals and principles so that the social organization may remain firmly established. Among the different means of social control, education is the best and effective means because through it the child is able to develop self discipline. Thus education is a better means of social control than police, military and other institutions.
- Security and Inheritance of Social Heritage- It has been very important duty of education to ensure security and inheritance of social heritage of the cultureand civilization of our ancestors and thinkers since early times. If education fails to perform this function, man will be unable to adjuts himself according to environment. Secondly society will again revert to its earlier standard.
- Social Progress- Generally all the thinkers of today undoubtedly accept that the proper development of the personality of the individual is possible only in a progressive society. Therefore it is the prime duty of education to endeavour to achieve social progress and also encourages others to do the same.
Sociological Principles of the Construction of Curriculum:
According to Brown, Moore and Cole, the following sociological principles should be kept in view while constructing the curriculum-
- The cultural values of society should be reflected in the curriculum. Along with this, eight ideals should be inculcated in the new generation.
- The organization of the curriculum or lesson-plan should be based on social conditions, problems and needs.
- It should present educational plans for the participation in the activities of society.
- The curriculum of school should be in accordance with the development of child and should teach the child to be able to live properly the adult life.
- Livelihood and social services should have a place in the curriculum.
- The curriculum should encourage the children to fulfil their responsibilities.
- The curriculum should prepare the children for world society.
- The curriculum should be flexible and changeable.
(4) Subjects based on Sociological Principles- Following are the subjects which are based on Sociological principles-
- Health Education.
- Physical Instruction.
- Social Study.
- Music and Art.
- General Science.
- Applied Arts.
- Subjects connected with Livelihood.
In the words of an eminent educationist, “Education is not to be confined to the study of a few subjects alone but is to present an epitomized study of the diversified social life”.
Methods of Teaching:
Payne has put forward the following three principles for the effective methods of teaching-
- The methods of teaching can be effective only when the abilities and knowledge acquired by the individual in the class are used for harmonizing social situations.
- The methods of teaching should primarily emphasize the social behaviour outside the class.
- In order to develop the capabilities for social harmony the method of teaching should search social power to be used in social life.
According to B. D. Bhatia, “The socialized techniques, the project and group methods, techniques of group dynamics are suitable methods according to educational sociology. Such methods have a number of advantages”.