|International Events– Events taking place outside India drew the league closer to the Congress. Some of these events included-|
(I) The British occupation of Egypt.
(II) The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, which divided Persia into two spheres of influence between England and Russia.
(III) The hostility of the British government towards the Sultan of Turkey during the Tripoli and Balkan wars in 1911, 1912 and 1913. They looked upon the Sultan as the Caliph of Islam and did not like that he should have been humbled by Italy and the Balkan Powers through the connivance of England. The participation of Turkey in the Great War on the side of Germany convinced the Indian Muslim that the British were not the real friend of Islam.
National Events- With the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911, the Muslims felt that they had been cheated. Further, in 1915 the Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali were arrested for supporting Turkey’s entry into the war against the British. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, at the time, a staunch Congress leader and a nationalist, wanted the League to come closer to the Congress. He was instrumental in spreading nationalist ideas.
The changed objectives of the League- With the change in the political attitude of the members of the League, there grew a desire for unity with the Congress. At the annual session of the Muslim League held in Lucknow in 1913, the Congress ideal of self-government was adopted. This commonality of interests brought a positive aspect to the relationship between Congress and the League. The Indian National Congress welcomed this change.
Efforts to bring both parties Together- It was generally felt among the middle-class Muslims the need to join hands with the Congress in their fight against the British government. Jinnah tried to bring the League and the Congress closer. With this aim, he even organized the League’s annual session at Bombay, at the same time and at the same place as that of the Congress. Even the Congress leaders encouraged the League’s attempt to bridge the gap. Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu attended the League’s session at Bombay. Committees were appointed by both parties to prepare a draft for reforms that were to be demanded from the British government.