League of Nations:
The League of Nations was born on January 10, 1920. The 14 points for the establishment of peace on a just basis presented by Wilson before Germany on January 18, 1918, contained the idea of the League of Nations. When Wilson reached Paris to participate in the Peace Conference he made it clear that he gave the greatest importance to the formation of a League of Nations. Its covenant having 26 articles was part of the Treaty of Versailles. The League had its headquarter in Geneva. The objectives of the League of Nations were-
(1) To promote peace, security and international cooperation to prevent any future war.
(2) To put a complete end to the war between nations.
(3) To promote just and honourable relations among nations.
(4) To supervise the careful implementation of international treaties and responsibilities.
It was expected that the formation of the League of Nations would ensure permanent peace. Wilson said, ‘A living organism is taking birth—- It is an assurance of peace’. But this assurance was soon nullified, that is the League of Nations failed to find a peaceful solution to the international disputes and establish permanent peace.
The League fell and war broke out within two decades of its formation. It signifies the failure of the League, but it justified its existence when the UNO was formed. The principle of collective security was more meaningful and important although not fully implemented than the principle of the security of factions. The League might not have been very successful in its political activities but in non-political activities its achievements are remarkable. Its greatest contribution is the generation of the spirit of international cooperation and perhaps it was the objective for which it was established.