## What is AC Generator?

It is a device, which produces alternating current energy from mechanical energy. The generator was originally designed by *N. Tesla.*

## Principle of AC Generator:

AC Generator is based on the phenomenon of ** electromagnetic induction** i.e. when the magnetic flux is linked with coil changes, an induced EMF is produced in the coil. The direction of induced EMF produced is given by

**.**

*Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule*## Construction of AC Generator:

An AC Generator consists of the following parts-

(1) ** Armature-** ABCD is rectangular armature coil. It consists of a large number of turns of insulated copper wire bounded over a soft iron core.

(2) ** Field Magnets-** N and S are the pole pieces of a strong electromagnet. The armature coil is rotated between the pole pieces N and S.

(4) ** Split Rings-** R

_{1}and R

_{2}are called split rings. The ends of the armature coil are connected with them.

(4) ** Brushes-** B

_{1}and B

_{2}are two brushes. They are fixed and kept in light contact with R

_{1}and R

_{2}. The purpose of the brushes is to pass on current from the armature coil to the external load resistance R.

## Working and Theory of AC Generator:

When the armature coil is rotated in the magnetic field, magnetic flux linked with the coil changes, and hence induced EMF is produced in the coil.

To start with, suppose the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the plane of the paper, with side AB at the front and side CD at the back. Now as the coil is rotated anticlockwise, AB moves inwards and CD moves outwards. Due to this, rotation of the coil, magnetic flux linked with the coil changes, and hence induced current are produced in the coil. According to Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule, the direction of current inside AB is from A to B and the direction of current inside CD is from C to D. Also, the direction of current through external resistance R is from ** Y to X**.

After half the rotation, the side AB is at the back and the side CD is at the front. Now, as the coil is rotated further in an anticlockwise direction, CD moves inwards and AB moves outwards. Due to this rotation of the coil, magnetic flux linked with the coil changes, and hence induced current is produced in the coil. According to Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule, the direction of induced current inside CD is from D to C and the direction of current inside AB is from B to A. Also, the direction of current through external resistance R is from ** X to Y**, and so on.

Hence the induced current in the external resistance R changes direction after every half rotation of the coil. Hence induced current produced is alternating in nature.

Let N = Number of turns of the coil A = Area of each turn of coil We know magnetic flux linked with coil is given by ⇒ Φ = NBA cos θ ⇒ Φ = NBA cos ωt [where θ = ωt]According to Faraday’s 2nd law of Electromagnetic Induction, e = – dΦ/dt ⇒ e = – d (NBA cos ωt)/dt⇒ e = -NBA [d (cos ωt)/dt]⇒ e = -NBA [- ω sin ωt]⇒ e = NBA ω sin ωtBut NBA ω = e_{0} = Maximum value of induced EMF⇒ e = e_{0} sin ωtAlso, the variation of induced EMF with time is shown in fig. Also, we know I = e/R ⇒ I = e _{0} sin ωt/RPut e _{0}/R = I_{0} = Maximum value of current⇒ I = I_{0} sin ωtThis is current produced in AC Generator. |