Balban and Mongols

Balban and Mongols:

Mongols- The Mongols were a narrowed, short-statured people of Central Asia. They were heathens and their habits were nomadic. They were fine horsemen and ruthless brutal soldiers who had no idea of mercy or kindness. The words Mongol and Mughal are different forms of the same word. However, the Mughals were a more civilized tribe largely of the Turki blood who embraced Islam in the 14th century. The Turks and Mongols inter-married freely. The raids of the Mongols were a constant menace to the Indian frontier throughout the reigns of the Sultans of Delhi.

Chinghiz Khan- Chinghiz Khan was a Mongol Chief who acquired supremacy over the nomad hordes of Mongolia. He was born in 1162. His original name was Temujuin and had acquired the title of Chingiz Khan. He conquered a large portion of China and all the kingdoms of Central Asia. He sacked Samar Kand Bukhara and Merv. He entered Afghanistan in pursuit of Jalalud-din the fugitive king of Khawrisam. Herat and Ghazni fell before his assault and the Mongols occupied Peshawar. Jalalud-din sought refuge in the court of Altmash. But the latter refused to give his refuge. So Chingiz Khan returned to Central Asia and thus India was saved from the terrible atrocities which characterized the “Scourge of God” (1221). However, the Mongols began to raid the Frontier Provinces of India whenever they found an appropriate opportunity. The menace of Mongol invasion hung like a dark shadow over the Sultans of Delhi and they had to strain every nerve to protect their North-Western frontier against this external danger. They occupied Afghanistan and used it as a base of operations against India. During the reign of Bahram the Mongols under their leader BahadurTair crossed the Indus and captured Lahore and razed the city walls to the ground. In the reign of Masud, the Mongols occupied Multan and besieged Uch (Sind). These invasions increased during the reign of Nasir-ud-din. They occupied Multan and Sind a portion of the Punjab. It was Balban who checked the Mongols successfully. He entrusted the task of defending the frontiers to his two sons. Balban built new forts and repaired the old ones. He garrisoned them with an efficient army. But the Mongol invasions continued under Taimur Khan, they Killed Balban’s eldest son Prince Mohammad (1285) who was then the governor of Multan. His death broke the heart of the aged Sultan who died in 1286.

Effects of Mongol Raids on the Internal Policy of the Sultans- The occupation of a portion of the Punjab by the Mongols constituted an ever-present threat to the Delhi Sultans and vitally affected their policy. It compelled them to maintain a large army for defensive purposes and prevented them from diverting it to offensive operations within the country. They realized the risk of engaging in aggressive warfare for the extension of their empire at a time when their Capital Delhi lay exposed to the devastating raids of the Mongols. Most of the energy was devoted to the work of consolidation rather than the extension of the Delhi Empire. The result was that the Deccan remained free from Muslim invasion during the period. A new era of expansion started under Ala-ud-din Khilji who was powerful enough to defend the frontiers against the Mongols and at the same time to venture upon the conquest of the Deccan.

The Ghadar Party Movement 1913
The Home Rule League, 1916
Lucknow Pact 1916
Montagu Declaration or August Declaration [1917]
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act 1919
Champaran Satyagraha 1917
Kheda Satyagraha of 1918
Ahmedabad Mill Strike 1918
Rowlatt Act, 1919
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre [April 13, 1919]
India Between AD 750-1200– NIOS

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