Describe the effect of physical environment on the biotic community?

Effect of physical environment on the Biotic Community:

A biotic community needs non-living or abiotic components which are obtained from the physical environment which includes soil, oxygen, mineral nutrients, humidity, sunlight, temperature etc. There are different environments in different parts of the earth. Therefore, animal and plant communities also differ from region to region. In any region, only those animals and plants can live which are adapted to that environment.

Examples-

  • A community containing fruit-bearing plants consists of many fruit-eating bats and insects.
  • In a grassland, only seed-eating birds, mice, predatory birds living on other animals lower down in the food chains are found.
  • In a marsh, the quality and quantity of available water determine the type of species found there. These may be frogs, toads, fish, water insects and water birds.
  • In the sea, animals and plants are adapted for a higher concentration of salt.
  • In grassland, grazing and burrowing animals like deer, rabbits, ground squirrels, hawks, larks and pigeons are found.
  • In a water body, aquatic plants are adapted to different intensities of light may be found at different depths in the water.

The biological community interacts with the physical environment i.e. Land, Air and Water. Examples are as under-

  • The way in which land or soil is connected with trees. What man has done to the land is closely related to the destruction he has caused to forests and trees. The land is good only when it is fertile and it is covered with or surrounded by trees.
  • The deer cannot have grass to feed on if there is no fertile soil and not a sufficient quantity of water for the grass to grow.
  • Water is an essential part of all living organisms. It helps in almost all the metabolic processes. It is used for drinking, cooking, irrigation, washing. cleaning etc.
  • All the living organisms require air. Animals use oxygen of the air and give out CO2 which they breathe. The green plants use CO2 in photosynthesis and give out fresh oxygen.
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