Effects of the First World War:
Following were the effects of the First World War-
Effects of the First World War on Germany:
Germany was defeated in the First World War. She had to share in bearing the burden of war. She was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. She was compelled to accept the following harsh terms-
- Forced to Surrender Territory- Being held guilty of aggression, Germany was compelled to surrender some parts of her territory (annexed provinces) to Denmark, Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia.
- Surrender of Coal-Mines- Alsace-Lorraine was restored to France. The Saar Valley of Germany’s coal mines were surrendered to France for 15years.
- Division of Colonial Empire- Germany’s colonial empire too was grabbed and divided among the victors. France and England divided Togoland and Cameroon. England, Belgium, Portugal and South Africa shared the German colonies in East Africa and South-West Africa. New Zealand got the Samoa island while Japan got Kian Chow and Shantung in China.
- Ban on Militarism- Germany was disarmed. She was not allowed to have any submarines or air force. Her army was reduced to only one lac. Her area of Rhine-Valley was demilitarized.
- Payment of War Ransom- Being held guilty of aggression Germany was made to pay a war ransom of $6,500,000,000 (650 crores) to the allies.
Effects of the First World War on Austria-Hungary:
Austria-Hungary was compelled to sign the treaty of St. Germain with the allies and accept the following terms and conditions-
- Split in Austria-Hungary- Austria-Hungary was split up into two separate kingdoms of Austria and Hungary.
- Forced to accept Independence of surrendered Territories- Austria was forced to surrender some of her territories to Yugoslavia, Poland and Czechoslovakia and accept their independence.
- Italy’s gaining of Territories- Italy too got certain territories, such as Tyrol from Austria.
- Reduction in Army- The Austrian army was reduced to 30,000 only.
- War-Ransom- Austria was forced to pay a heavy war-ransom.
Effects of the First World War on Turkey:
Turkey was forced to sign ‘The Treaty of Sevres‘ and was made to accept the following conditions-
- Dismemberment of the Turkish Empire- The Turkish (Ottoman) empire was completely shattered as a result of this treaty. Palestine and Mesopotamia (Iraq) were handed over to Britain while the control of Syria was given to France.
- Loss of Egypt- England gained control of Egypt from Turkey.
- Sharing of Turkish Territories- Greece and Italy shared most of the remaining Turkish territories.
However, the Treaty of Sevres could not be imposed fully on Turkey since a revolution broke out in Turkey under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. The Sultan was deposed and Turkey regained the control of Aisa Minor and the city of Constantinople and the Allies were compelled to abandon the earlier treaty.
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