Ecosystem

Ecosystem: The term ecology was coined by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment consists of other living organisms (biotic) & physical (abiotic) components. The ecosystem is a self-sustained & self-regulated segment of nature that consists of a biotic community …

Other Social Reform Movements

Social Reform Movements: Prarthna Samaj:  As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang. Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”. The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter caste …

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan & the Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement: Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was instrumental in fostering differences between the Hindus & the Muslims. In the initial years he was a staunch nationalist who regarded the two communities as “the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is India”. The suppression of the Muslims following the Revolt of 1857 convinced Sir Sayyid Khan …

Sayyid & Lodhi Dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451): After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, Daulat Khan Lodi became the Sultan, but was defeated by Khizr Khan(1414-1421) who was Timur’s Viceroy of Multan & Dipalpur & thus was founded the Sayyid dynasty. Khizr Khan claimed his descent from the blood line of prophet Mohammad. Mubarak Shah (1421-1434) was the protagonist of Yahya-bin-Ahmad Sirhindi’s, …

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)

Tughlaq Dynasty Important Facts: Tughlaq – personal name. Belonged to Qarauna Turk tribe, mixed tribe of Turk & Mongol stock. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-25): Also called Ghazi Malik. First sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or Slayer of the infidels. First sultan to start irrigation work. Gave up land measurement & started Batai …

The Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320): Alauddin Khilji

The Khilji (khalji) people were an ethnic group from Western Turkistan. Their ascendancy is known as the Khilji Revolution because  it marked the end of monopoly of power by the Turkish nobility & racial dictatorship. Jalauddin Firuz Khilji (1290-96): Ali Gurshasp (later sultan Alauddin Khilji) was the nephew & son-in-law of Jalauddin Firuz Khilji. After the downfall …

Freedom Struggle Newspaper & Books: List

Freedom Struggle Newspaper & Books: Books Author Satyarth Prakash Swami Dayanand Saraswati Why I am atheist? Bhagat Singh A nation in Making S.N.Banerjee A week with Gandhi Louis Fitcher Unhappy India Lala Lajpat Rai Kingdom of God is within you (book that inspired Gandhi) Leo Tolstoy Unto the last John Ruskin Life Divine Aurbindo Ghosh Freedom …

Early Indian Nationalism

Indian Nationalism: Political Associations before the INC (Indian National Congress): In 1866, Dadabhai Naoroji founded the East India Association in London. In 1867, Mary Carpenter, biographer of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, founded the National Indian Association in London. In 1870, Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was founded by M.G.Ranade. In 1872, Indian Society was founded by Anand Mohan …

Theosophical Society

Theosophical Society: Was founded by Madame Blavatsky & Col. Olcott in New York in 1875 to revive the ancient religions of Asia mainly Hinduism, Buddhism & Zoroastrianism. Though Adyar (near Madras) became its headquarters in 1882. propagating Hindu beliefs, reincarnation & Karma. The beliefs of the Theosophical Society were a strange mixture of religion, philosophy & …

Swami Vivekananda & Ramakrishna Mission

Ramakrishna Mission: Ramakrishna Paramhansa was a priest in the temple of Kali at Dakshineshwar near Calcutta. He aimed at the universal synthesis of all religions. “In a potter’s shop there are vessels of different shapes & forms- pots, jars, dishes, plates, but all are made of one clay. So god is one but is worshipped in …