Modes of Nutrition: Autotrophic & Heterotrophic

Autotrophic & Heterotrophic Nutrition: Nutrition: Food is required by all living beings to survive. The food contains various nutrients. The process by which the food is obtained and considered by a living organism to get energy and various other materials for the growth, repair, development and maintenance of the various body parts is called nutrition. Modes …

Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire Important Facts: The founder of the Gupta dynasty was Sri Gupta. He was succeeded by Ghatokacha. These two were called Maharajas. Chandragupta I (320-330 A.D.): Chandragupta I was the first independent Gupta empire ruler & called himself ‘Maharajadhiraja‘ (the great king of kings). Married the Lichchavi Princess, Kumaradevi, which was politically very strategic for …

Sangam Age

Sangam Age Important Facts: The land South of Krishna River was divided into three kingdoms – Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas. There was continuous warfare between the three. Sangam Age Kingdom: Cheras: Emblem – Bow & Arrow. Capital – Vanji or Karur (modern Kerala). Port – Muzris (most famous), Tondi, Bandar. The cheras dynasty was known as …

Pre-Gupta Period

Pre-Gupta Period Important Facts: Indo-Greeks: Demetrius was the first foreign king after Alexander who carried Greek army into India about 190 B.C. & conquered North Western part of the Mauryan Empire. Most famous among Indo-Greek rulers was Menander who reached Pataliputra. His capital was Sakala or Sialkot. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna …

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire Important Facts: Chandragupta Maurya (321-297 B.C.): Called as Sandrocottus by the Greeks. Finding signs of royalty in him, Chanakya or Vishnu Gupta or Kautilya, brought him up got him educated at Taxila. At the young age of 25, dethroned the last Nanda ruler (Dhanananda) & occupied Pataliputra in 321 B.C. with the help of …

Jainism

Jainism Important Facts: The name of two Jain Tirthankaras (prophets or gurus), Rishabha & Arishtanemi, are found in the Rigveda. The Vishnu Purana & the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishabha as incarnation of Narayana. There were 24 tirthankaras, all kshatriyas & belonging to the Royal family. The first was Rishabha, the founder of Jainism & the last …

Ecosystem

Ecosystem: The term ecology was coined by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. The surroundings or environment consists of other living organisms (biotic) & physical (abiotic) components. The ecosystem is a self-sustained & self-regulated segment of nature that consists of a biotic community …

Other Social Reform Movements

Social Reform Movements: Prarthna Samaj:  As a result of Keshav Chandra Sen’s visit to Maharashtra, the Prarthna Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 (Bombay) by Atma Ram Pandurang. Its chief architect was Mahadev Govind Ranade, described as “the prophet of cultural renaissance in western India”. The Prarthna Samajists focused on inter dining & inter caste …

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan & the Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement: Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan was instrumental in fostering differences between the Hindus & the Muslims. In the initial years he was a staunch nationalist who regarded the two communities as “the two eyes of the beautiful bride that is India”. The suppression of the Muslims following the Revolt of 1857 convinced Sir Sayyid Khan …