Sense and New Realism

Sense and New Realism: Sense Realism: Sense Realism has a dominant role to play in the field of education. It was the system of education which had the roots of all the principles of modern education. Munro writes, “The term itself is derived from the fundamental belief that knowledge comes primarily through sense. We can have …

Humanistic and Social Realism

Humanistic and Social Realism: Humanistic Realism: The study of Roman and Greek literature is necessary for attaining that aim. Humanistic Realism gave a dominant place to the old literature and considered it necessary for the personal, social and psychological development of man. Erasmus, Rabelais, and Milton are the chief exponents of the theory. Erasmus feels that …

Education and Values

Education and Values: Values relate to the aims of human life. For the achievement of the aims men frame certain notions and these notions are called values. W. H. Kilpatrick has written, “That out of man’s capacity for goal-seeking behaviour arise his wants and efforts and out of these come in consciously chosen end (goal) and …

Functions of Education in National Life

Functions of Education in National Life: Education has a very vital role in national life. The state has a very close and intimate relationship with its citizens. The rise and fall of nations depend upon the individuals. The progress of a nation is possible only when its citizens are dynamic, resourceful, enterprising and responsible. Without such …

Experimental Measurement of Osmotic Pressure

Experimental Measurement of Osmotic Pressure: Berkeley and Hartley’s method is the most commonly used method to determine the osmotic pressure of the solution. The apparatus used in this method is shown below. The apparatus consists of a porous tube containing the semi-permeable membrane of copper Ferrocyanide. One end of it is fitted with reservoir ‘R’ and …

Depression in Freezing Point

Depression in Freezing Point: It is the temperature when the solid and the liquid forms of the substance are in equilibrium with each other, i.e., the solid and the liquid form of the substance have the same vapour pressure and co-exist with each other. It is characteristic of each liquid. For Example- the freezing point of …

Elevation of Boiling Point

Elevation of Boiling Point: The temperature of a substance (liquid) at which the vapour pressure of a liquid is equal to atmospheric pressure is called the boiling point of the liquid. It is characteristic of each liquid. For example- the boiling point of H2O is 373 K. We know that the vapour pressure of a solution …