Fragmentation of Holdings- Inheritance rights have led to the division and fragmentation of land holdings in India. Hence the size of our holdings is uneconomical. The average size of our holdings is 0.2 hectare.
Heavy Population Pressure- More than 67% of our population depends on agriculture for their living. A rapid increase in population has led to the pressure increasing on agriculture day by day. So industries fail to attract people towards them and decrease pressure on agriculture. Allied industries have also not accommodated rural people in them. This state has resulted in unemployment among rural folk.
Soil Erosion- Heavy rainfall, deforestation and excessive animal grazing have led to soil erosion. It causes both decrease in agricultural land area and a decrease in fertility of the soil. The Chambal ravines (badlands) present an example of the menace of soil erosion.
Lack of Irrigational Facilities- Uncertainty, inadequacy and uneven distribution of rainfall has led to heed for irrigation. The evergrowing season has facilitated the raising of various crops throughout the year. The success of these crops depends upon irrigational facilities. In areas of adequate irrigational facilities, agricultural activities have developed but such areas are very rarely found in the country. Even today large agricultural land depends solely on rainfall. That is why agriculture still remains a gamble to the Monsoon.
Lack of Modern and Scientific Agricultural Implements- Old and rough agricultural implements are still in use in India. Indian farmers use old wooden plough and bullocks in tilling agricultural land. Illiteracy and poverty obstruct them to use modern and scientific implements. These facts have resulted in the agricultural backwardness of the country.
Lack of Improved Seeds and fertilizers- In India age-old continuous agricultural practice has led to a decrease in fertility of the land. Hence agricultural yield per hectare is very low. Farmer is poor. He cannot afford to buy improved seed and chemical fertilizers. Besides this, money lenders advance them loans at a very high rate of interests and buy their produce at low prices. This is the cause of rural indebtedness in the country.
Crop-diseases and Pests-Indian agricultural crops suffer from numerous diseases. Agricultural researchers have led to inventions of various insecticides and pesticides but they are beyond the reach of poor farmers.
Unreasonable Price of Farm Produce- Farmers breathe under indebtedness. They have to sell their farm produce to money lenders at the price which they wish to give to them. Farmers have no bargaining power. They toil hard but they do not get a remunerative price for their produce. This leads to their frustration. It also mars their initiative power.