Biology and its Branches

What is Biology?

Biology is defined as the branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms. It has been divided into two main subdivisions- Zoology (the study of living animals) and Botany (the study of living plants).

Various Branches of Biology:

  • Parasitology- is the branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites (disease-causing organisms).
  • Taxonomy- is the branch of biology that deals with identifying, naming (nomenclature) and classifying organisms into various groups.
  • Morphology- is the study of form and external structure.
  • Anatomy- is the study of internal structure.
  • Histology- is the study of cells and tissues with the help of a microscope.
  • Cell Biology- deals with the structure, function, reproduction and all other activities of a cell itself.
  • Molecular Biology- is the study of the Physico-chemical organisation of biomolecules such as nucleic acids, the composition of organic compounds and mechanisms of their synthesis.
  • Physiology- is the study of various processes and functions of life.
  • Embryology- is the study of various events and changes that occur in the formation of a zygote, the development of an embryo and its transformation into a complete individual.
  • Ecology- is the branch of biology which deals with the relation between organisms and their environment.
  • Genetics- is the study of the inheritance of characters from parents to offsprings.
  • Evolution- is the formation of new species from pre-existing ones as a result of a slow and continuous process.
  • Palaeo-biology- deals with the study of origin, structure and growth of various forms of life that have existed in the past and only their fossils are available now.
  • Exo-biology- is a branch of biology which deals with the kind of life that may exist in outer space.
  • Anthropology- is the study of mankind, especially of its society and customs, structure and evolution of man.
  • Agronomy- is the science of soil management and crop production.
  • Pathology- is the science dealing with the nature of diseases, their causes, symptoms and effects.
  • Veterinary Medicine- deals with the diseases of animals and their health care.
  • Entomology- is the study of insects.
  • Sericulture- is the breeding and treatment of silkworms for producing raw silk.
  • Apiculture- is the rearing of bees for commercial purpose.
  • Micro-biology- is the science dealing with the structure, function and uses of microscopic organisms.
  • Poultry science- deals with domestic fowls, chickens, ducks etc.
  • Pharmacology- is the science dealing with drugs, their sources, chemistry, action and uses.
  • Forensic Medicine- deals with the legal aspects of medicine.
  • Limnology- is the study that deals with the freshwater lakes, ponds and streams in relation to plants and animals.
  • Immunology- is the study of the resistance of organisms against infection.
  • Biochemistry- is the study that deals with chemical reactions in relation to life activities.
  • Ethology- is the study of the behaviour of animals.

Importance of the study of Life Science:

  • The study of life science is important for human life as it helps man to understand his own body and mind.
  • It helps to know various life activities going on in the body of living organisms and thus, establish their main characteristics for the benefit of the human race.
  • It helps to understand and appreciate nature and natural laws.
  • It helps to know the relationship of living beings with the environment.
  • It helps to know about the type of diseases from which the living beings can suffer and thus, find out the remedial measures.
  • It enables us to understand the economic importance of animals and plants related to medicine, industry, agriculture etc.
  • It enables us to understand the ways and means of conserving natural resources.
  • It helps us to solve various problems such as radiation hazards, shortage of food, overpopulation, diseases etc.
  • It can serve as a foundation for such professions as medicine, dentistry, agriculture, nursing, fishery, forestry, bacteriology etc.
  • For research work.

In general, life sciences can be of tremendous importance and use in human welfare.

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