Factors Determining Morale:
The morale of the employees can be high or low, or it can be at times high and at times low. The actual behavior or working of each organization is virtually determined by the morale of its employees. Morale in itself is determined by several factors.
(1) The Organization- The nature of the organization for which the employees are working is a determinant of their morale. An organization that has a rich history of achievements can be a source of high morale for its employees. The legacy of the organization, the prestige that it enjoys in society, and the success with which it has been carrying out its work play a deterministic role in determining the morale of its employees. In the army, each regiment maintains a record of its achievements in battles and wars. A proud regimental record always makes its member feel proud of their regiment and hence their morale remains high. Hence the history and nature of the organization act as a determinant of morale.
To develop and sustain high Morale, every organization takes several steps- organizing proper education, training, and human relations programmes, regularly monitoring of morale levels, and remedial steps for overcoming low morale.
(2) Nature of Work- The employees like those jobs which match well with their personalities. The employees can be happy only when they feel that the work they are doing meets their psychological needs, matches their values, gives them satisfaction, suits their temperament, makes them feel important, and gives them a feeling that they are participating in a meaningful exercise. Tedious, boring, and routine work never contributes to morale building. In countries like India, which are faced with a big problem of unemployment, it is very hard for people to get jobs, and seldom do they get the jobs that they really like. It is one of the most potent reasons that such employees get stuck in a low-morale situation. Pride in one’s work alone can ensure a high level of morale among the employees. The nature of work is an important determinant of the level of morale.
(3) Supervisory Techniques- Each employee is at work at a particular level of organizational hierarchy. Since every organization is quite broad at its base, a large number of employees work at this level. The number goes on getting gradually reduced as the organizational ladder goes up. Each employee is, therefore, under the supervision and control of a superior officer. The attitude of the superior toward his subordinates, his supervising skills, his informal relations with his subordinates as well as his qualities of leadership play a big role in determining the morale of his subordinate. His fairness, impartiality, ability of crisis management, overall good leadership, and exemplary conduct act as a source of high morale for them. The absence of these qualities or the weakness of the superior officers is always a cause of low morale among the employees.
(4) Nature of Interactions among the Employees- The nature of relations between the employers and employees, as well as the nature of overall interactions among the employees exercise big influences on the employees’ morale. Formal training in the company of co-employees, informal assistance from co-employees, and a feeling of fraternity and cooperation among them always boost the morale of the new employees. Encouragement from co-workers always adds to morale. Non-cooperation, jealous attitude, carelessness, and aloofness of fellow employees always create an undesirable work environment which lowers the morale of the employees. A humane and cooperative work environment can be a source of high morale for all employees.
(5) Personal Qualities of the Employees- Another important determinant of morale is the personal qualities of the employees. Their education, skill, training, attitude towards life in general and work in particular, their willingness to learn as well as work, the social environment, financial position, aspirations, wants, desires, interests, and needs are all factors that determine their morale as well as their role and capability in contributing to the morale of the group/organization to which they belong and for which they work. In evaluating the morale of an employee, one must take into account his personality. It is this factor that varies the level of morale among the employees working in the same organization, under the same superiors, and in the same environment.
All these factors have to be taken into account while evaluating the level of morale of the employees of an organization. It is only by keeping these factors in mind that measures for increasing the morale of the employees can be undertaken.