Amoeba does not have a fixed body shape and moves around by producing certain projections in the body called pseudopodia.
Paramecium possesses tiny hair-like, structures distributed all over its body called cilia which help it in locomotion.
Euglena and Chlamydomonas possess one or two whip-like locomotory structures called flagella.
The body of the organisms is made of a many cells.
Example- plants (metaphyta) and animals (metozoa).
The cells are fewer and similar in coenobial or colonial organisms like Pandorina, Eudorina, Proterospongia and Volvox.
Cells have diverse shapes. They may be flat, oval, spherical, cylindrical, cuboidal, spindle-shaped or irregular in shape.
Guard cells found in leaves are bean shaped. Two guard cells are closely opposed to each other leaving a pore called stomata through which exchange of gases takes place.
Cyanobacteria also called blue-green algae.
Plant and Animal Cell:
The cell wall is the outermost rigid protective covering found only in plant cell.
It is a non-living structure and provides shape and rigidity to the plant cell.
The cell membrane is a delicate covering that surrounds the jelly-like cytoplasm present inside the cell.
In animal cells, it is the outermost layer while in plant cells it is surrounded by the cell wall on the outside.
It is a living structure and has tiny holes which allow materials to move in and out of the cell.
It is made up of lipids of proteins.
The cell membrane is also called plasma membrane.
It is a jelly-like substance present inside the cell.
It contains several structures called cell organelles floating in it.
Nucleus is a dense body found generally in the center of the cell.
It has a double-layered covering- the nuclear membrane which encloses a jelly-like ground substance.
Cell organelles are extremely small structure present in cytoplasm and concerned with cell function.
Following cell organelles are commonly found in cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of tubular channels present throughout the cytoplasm.
The channels are connected to the nuclear membrane on the one and to the cell membrane on the other, thereby forming a skeletal support system for the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum also helps in the storage and transport of materials inside the cell.
Mitochondria are tiny rod like structures found in the cytoplasm.
Also known as power houses of cell, because during oxidation of food, the energy released is stored in the ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) molecules.
Golgi bodies are flattened sac-like structures and are involved in the secretion of certain substances in the cell.
The Golgi appartus is known as dictyosome in plants.
Small organelles found in all types of cells.
Composed of approximately equal amount of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein.
Sites of protein synthesis.
Lysosomes are tiny sacs containing digestive enzymes and are often called suicide bags because under adverse condition they can eat the very cell in which they are present.
Lysosomes are formed directly from Endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex.
Centrosome is a small body present close to the nucleus in animal cells.
It contains two tiny granular bodies called centrioles.
The centrioles help in cell division.
Plastids are specialised bodies found in plant cells. Depending on their colour, the plastids can be categorised as under:
Leucoplasts- Colourless plastids.
Chloroplasts- Green plastids. It is an important plastids because they contain a green pigment called chlorophyll which manufactures food for the plant using solar energy through the process of photosynthesis. Produce starch and found in leaves.
Chromoplasts- yellow, orange or red-coloured plastids. Give colour to fruits and flower.
A space within the cytoplasm of a plant cell, containing cell sap.
Animal cells normally have many small vacuoles while plant cells generally have one big vacuole.
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