What is Electric Charge?
Electric charge is defined as the property of matter due to which one body can attract or repel the other body.
When we rub two substances against each other, then electrons are removed from one substance and are transferred to the other. The transfer takes place from the material in which electrons are held less tightly to the material in which electrons are held more tightly. Hence, there is a deficiency of electrons in one atom and there is an excess of electrons in other atom. This deficiency or excess of electrons in an atom is called the charge of the atom.
There are two types of charge. The substance which loses the electrons acquire a positive charge and the substance which gains the electrons acquire a negative charge. Example- When we rub a glass rod with a piece of silk, electrons are transferred from the glass rod to silk. Hence glass rod acquires a positive charge and the silk piece acquire a negative charge.
Properties of Charge:
- Charge is of two types i.e. positive charge and negative charge.
- Charge is a scalar quantity.
- Charge does not depend upon the speed of the body i.e. charge is invarient.
- Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.
- Charge is additive.
- Charge is quantized.
- Charge is conserved.
- Charge cannot exist without mass.
- Charge plays an important role in Electricity.
- Charge is a derived physical quantity.
Units of Charge:
The S.I. unit of charge is Coloumb and C.G.S. unit of charge is stat-coloumb or e.s.u. (electro-static unit).
Also, 1 coloumb = 3 X 109 e.s.u.
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