Nagpur Session of the INC:
At the special session of the INC held in Calcutta in September 1920, a resolution was passed, at Mahatma Gandhi’s instance, to launch the Non-cooperation movement for two wrongs:
- The British Government’s attitude towards the Khilafat issue.
- It failed to protect the innocent people of Punjab and punish the officers guilty of barbarous behavior towards them.
The Calcutta resolutions were ratified at the annual session of the INC held at Nagpur in December 1920. It was a historic session, which apart from ratifying the Non-Cooperation resolution, also undertook two important amendments to the constitution of the Congress.
First, the goal of the INC, which in the existing constitution was “self-government within the British Empire”, was replaced with the word Swaraj.
Secondly, revolutionary changes were brought about in the Congress organization and a constructive programme was chalked out. These included:
- Opening of Congress membership to all adults.
- the formation of an All-India Congress Committee (AICC)of 300 members.
- Creating a hierarchy of district, taluka, and village Congress Committees.
- Reorganization of the Provincial Congress Committees on a linguistic basis.
- Promotion of Swadeshi, particularly hand-spinning and weaving.
- Removal of untouchability among the Hindus.
- Promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity and use of Hindi as far as possible.
In other ways too, the organizational structure was both streamlined and democratized.