Types of Solution

Definition of a Solution:

A solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more non-reactive substances in a single phase whose composition can be varied within certain limits. The particle size of each component is up to 10-9m. A binary solution is generally made up of two components solute and solvent.

A solvent is that component of a solution which is present in a larger amount by weight and whose physical state is the same as that of the solution. On the other hand, a solute is that component of a solution which is present in small amounts and whose physical state changes during solution formation. Example- A solution of NaCl in H2O has NaCl as solute and water as solvent.

Types of Solution:

Depending upon the physical state of the solvent and the solute, various types of solutions are tabulated below-

Physical State of SolutePhysical State of SolventExamples
SolidSolidAlloys (Homogeneous Mixture of metals). Example- Steel, Brass.
LiquidSolidHydrated salts (CuSO4.5H2O); an amalgam of Hg with Na.
GasSolidDissolved gases in minerals. Example- CaCO3.
SolidLiquidSalt solutions in H2O. Example- NaCl in H2O.
LiquidLiquidAlcohol in H2O (A mixture of two miscible liquids).
GasLiquidAerated drinks; O2 gas dissolved in H2O.
SolidGasIodine vapours in air; camphor vapours in N2 gas.
LiquidGasHumidity in air; chloroform vapours mixed with N2 gas.
GasGasA mixture of nitrogen and oxygen gases, air.

Solutions in which H2O is solvent are called aqueous solutions and solutions in which solvent is other than water, i.e., organic solvents like benzene, ether, CCl4, etc. are called non-aqueous solutions.

There are two more types of solutions called saturated and unsaturated solutions. A solution which can dissolve more of solute is called an unsaturated solution and a solution which cannot dissolve more of solute is called a saturated solution.

Racemic Mixture and its ResolutionIdeal and Non-Ideal Solutions
Organometallic CompoundsTangent Galvanometer
Colloidal State of MatterExperimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
Atoms and Molecules– Tamil BoardPhotoelectric Equation of Einstein

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