Definition of a Solution:
A solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more non-reactive substances in a single phase whose composition can be varied within certain limits. The particle size of each component is up to 10-9m. A binary solution is generally made up of two components solute and solvent.
A solvent is that component of a solution which is present in a larger amount by weight and whose physical state is the same as that of the solution. On the other hand, a solute is that component of a solution which is present in small amounts and whose physical state changes during solution formation. Example- A solution of NaCl in H2O has NaCl as solute and water as solvent.
Types of Solution:
Depending upon the physical state of the solvent and the solute, various types of solutions are tabulated below-
|Physical State of Solute||Physical State of Solvent||Examples|
|Solid||Solid||Alloys (Homogeneous Mixture of metals). Example- Steel, Brass.|
|Liquid||Solid||Hydrated salts (CuSO4.5H2O); an amalgam of Hg with Na.|
|Gas||Solid||Dissolved gases in minerals. Example- CaCO3.|
|Solid||Liquid||Salt solutions in H2O. Example- NaCl in H2O.|
|Liquid||Liquid||Alcohol in H2O (A mixture of two miscible liquids).|
|Gas||Liquid||Aerated drinks; O2 gas dissolved in H2O.|
|Solid||Gas||Iodine vapours in air; camphor vapours in N2 gas.|
|Liquid||Gas||Humidity in air; chloroform vapours mixed with N2 gas.|
|Gas||Gas||A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen gases, air.|
Solutions in which H2O is solvent are called aqueous solutions and solutions in which solvent is other than water, i.e., organic solvents like benzene, ether, CCl4, etc. are called non-aqueous solutions.
There are two more types of solutions called saturated and unsaturated solutions. A solution which can dissolve more of solute is called an unsaturated solution and a solution which cannot dissolve more of solute is called a saturated solution.