Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers:

Polyethene or Polyethylene:

It is an addition polymer of ethylene. On a commercial scale, it is obtained by heating ethene (CH2 = CH2) to 473K under high pressure (1500 atmospheres) in the presence of 0.03-0.10% of molecular oxygen.

polythene prepartion reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is used-

  • In electrical insulators.
  • In the manufacture of pipes and various engineering and domestic articles.
  • As a packaging material in the form of thin plastic films, bags etc.
  • In coats, bread wrappers etc.

Polypropylene or Polypropene:

It is an addition polymer of propene or propylene. It is generally manufactured by passing propylene through n-hexane (inert solvent) containing Zeigler-Natta catalyst (mixture of Triethyl aluminium i.e. Al (C2H5)3 and Titanium Chloride i.e. TiCl3).

polypropylene preparation reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is harder and stronger polymer than Polyethene and is used-

  • In packing textile material and food.
  • In the manufacture of pipes, ropes, bottles, fibres, seat covers etc.
  • For making heat-shrinkable wraps for records and other articles.

Polystyrene:

It is an addition polymer of styrene. It is prepared by the polymerisation of styrene in the presence of benzoyl peroxide.

polystyrene preparation reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is a good transparent polymer and is used for making plastic toys, household wares (food containers, cosmetic bottles), TV cabinets, plastic cups, refrigerator linings, electrical insulation etc.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):

It is an addition polymer of vinyl chloride. It is prepared by heating vinyl chloride in an inert solvent in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as an initiator.

pvc reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is a tough flexible material and is used-

  • In the manufacture of raincoats, handbags, plastic dolls, curtain clothes and vinyl flooring.
  • As an insulator in electric wires and other electrical goods.
  • In the production of gramophone records, toys and other leather-like clothes.

Polytetrafluoro Ethylene (Teflon):

It is an addition polymer of tetrafluoroethene and is prepared by heating tetrafluoroethylene under pressure in the presence of Ammonium peroxosulfate i.e. (NH4)2S2O8.

teflon polymer reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is a tough material and is resistant to the attack of acids, bases and heat. It is used-

  • In coating utensils to make them non-sticky.
  • In making seals and gaskets which can withstand high pressure.
  • As an insulator for high-frequency electrical installations.

Terylene or Dacron:

It is a condensation polymer of Ethylene glycol and Terephthalic acid. It is prepared by heating ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid at about 425-475 K.

dacron reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is resistant to the attack of chemical reagents, wrinkling, wetting, pests and has high tensile strength. It is used-

  • In the manufacture of ropes, safety belts, tents and sails.
  • As a blend with cotton and wool in clothes to increase their resistance to wear and tear.
  • In the preparation of films, magnetic recording tapes.

Nylon-66:

It is a copolymer of Adipic acid and Hexamethylene diamine. It is prepared by the condensation polymerisation of Adipic acid with Hexamethylene diamine at about 553K.

nylon 66 reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is tough, flexible, resistant to most of the chemicals and has very high tensile strength. It is used-

  • In the production of bristles for brushes.
  • In the manufacture of socks, stockings, parachutes, carpets etc.

Glyptal:

It is obtained by the condensation polymerisation of Ethylene glycol and phthalic acid.

Glyptal - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is thermoplastic and is used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers.

Melamine Polymers:

It is prepared by the condensation polymerisation of melamine (2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-Triazine) with formaldehyde.

melamine polymer reaction - Preparation and Uses of Some Important Polymers

It is used in the manufacture of unbreakable plastic crockery like cups, plates etc.


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